This paper explores recent work in low cost - low ratio concentrating solar collectors. To keep cost low, stationary systems are assumed, a concentration of at least two to three is desired. Relatively even energy distribution at the receiver, minimal loss of diffuse radiation and simple low cost surfaces are important additional criteria. A brief discussion of stationary imaging and non-imaging collectors is presented. Examples of non-imaging collectors incorporating booster and trapping designs indicates features of potentially cost effective system designs.
"System Designs For Low Cost-Low Ratio Solar Concentrators", Proc. SPIE 0161, Optics Applied to Solar Energy IV, (17 November 1978); doi: 10.1117/12.956867; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.956867