This paper discusses the use of vernier measuring techniques to determine various errors associated with step-and-repeat mechanisms. The design of GCA Burlington's Universal Vernier Test Target is described and the application of this target to measure reduction error, optical distortion, die rotation, system precision, system registration, and stage orthogonality of Mann Type 4800DSW TM Wafer Stepper TM systems is explained. Test results for recent instruments are given and compared to the manufacturer's specifications.
William C. Schneider,
"Testing The Mann Type 4800DSWTM Wafer Steppertm", Proc. SPIE 0174, Developments in Semiconductor Microlithography IV, (17 July 1979); doi: 10.1117/12.957172; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.957172