A new era in x-ray and visible streak photography opened with the introduction of the proximity-focus or planar streak tube. Elimination of grids and photoelectron pinhole optics has resulted in a tube capable of transmitting peak photoelectron currents neces-sary for recording picosecond and sub-picosecond events without temporal or spatial distortion. Vacuum compatible x-ray cameras, based upon the planar design, have demonstrated better than 3 ps resolution. Visible cameras have shown impressive dynamic range and produced streaks of high statistical quality with picosecond resol-ution. These properties have opened new fields in picosecond and sub-picosecond photography.
Albert Lieber, Albert Lieber,
"Proximity-Focus: The New Generation Streak Tube", Proc. SPIE 0189, 13th Intl Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics, (27 July 1979); doi: 10.1117/12.957632; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.957632