The history of naval camouflage is briefly reviewed with particular stress on the work of Dayton R. E. Brown during and immediately after World War II. Submarine concealment in particular was a difficult problem with the requirement for both surfaced and submerged operations in the battle environment. Aircraft camouflage also underwent important evolutions during the war with the development of unusual schemes such as Yehudi and Black Widow. These needs instigated important research efforts both within the Navy and in the camouflage section of NDRC where work was carried out by Duntley and others principally at MIT and at the Tiffany Foundation. Research work encompassed the natural environment, human vision, as well as camouflage design.