Closed cycle cryogenic coolers are used extensively for cooling infrared detectors and other specialized electronic devices. Because of the special requirements of each electro-optical system it is generally necessary to custom design the cryocooler to fit the requirements. Early and close cooperation between the electro-optical systems designer and the cryocooler manufacturer is important to the successful marriage of the cryocooler with the total electro-optical system. Limitations of various cryocooling techniques are presented, and consideration for cryocooling integration are addressed.
Fred F. Chellis,
"An Introduction To Closed Cycle Cryogenic Coolers", Proc. SPIE 0245, Cryogenically Cooled Sensor Technology, (3 November 1980); doi: 10.1117/12.959338; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.959338