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26 February 1982 Minimax Optimization Of Two-Dimensional Cartesian And Fresnel Lens Phased Arrays
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In designing multi-element phased arrays, whether for radar antennas or ultrasonic imaging systems, it is always desirable to keep the number of sensor elements in the array to a minimum. This results in economic savings in the construction of the array and in computational savings in the processing of the collected data for the reconstruction of images. With this reduction in the number of elements comes an immediate trade-off in the array's performance between image resolution and the introduction of ambiguities into the image through grating lobes. This paper presents results on the optimization of phased arrays for a specified number of elements with respect to grating lobes, side lobes and image resolution. This is accomplished by adjusting the spacings as well as the individual gains of the elements. The results are applied to one and two dimensional Cartesian arrays and also to Fresnel lens arrays.
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R. P. Kraft and J. F. McDonald "Minimax Optimization Of Two-Dimensional Cartesian And Fresnel Lens Phased Arrays", Proc. SPIE 0294, New Methods for Optical, Quasi-Optical, Acoustic, and Electromagnetic Synthesis, (26 February 1982);

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