A model is constructed for the noise-density characteristics of electrophotographic half-tone images. The model has components relating to the fluctuations: within the dot; within the background area; and in dot-size. These components are themselves related to the (toner) particulate nature of the image, enabling comparison to be made with the equivalent continuous tone case.
P. D. Burns,
J. C. Dainty,
"Particulate Model For Halftone Noise In Electrophotography I. Theory", Proc. SPIE 0310, Image Quality, (28 December 1981); doi: 10.1117/12.932861; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.932861