During this Symposium, we will be discussing technology in the service of a central human need: the need for an interesting life. This need embraces entertainment, as well as education, enlightenment, and adaptation to the sweeping changes in which our technology is itself imbedded. And while our theme centers on optics, that is only one of the many media technologies that are overlapping more widely in order to meet changing social needs. This Symposium has sprung from a sense of shared curiosities and concerns with those technologies, and grown to a gradual recognition of a substantial underlying domain of common professional interests. We are grateful that the SPIE has been able to respond to Chris Outwater's proposal, and to offer a forum for this experiment in drawing together an unorthodox range of interests within a technical context. We hope that the program will help illuminate a fascinating intersection of technical competences and human needs.
The aim of this report is firstly to review colour display holography and secondly to present some of the work carried out in our laboratories in this field, An historical introduction is presented, setting out key events in the development of colour holography, and several historical parallels are drawn with colour photography. Laser illuminated colour holography and its problems, in particular that of spurious images is discussed. White-light-viewable colour holograms are divided into reflection, rainbow and dispersion-compensated types. The latter is a description of recent experiments by us. Colour rendition in holographic images is discussed. It is concluded that improvements in panchromatic photographic emulsions, and development of inexpensive lasers operating at or near 450, 540 and 610 nm may be the most important future developments for colour holography.
At first glance, holography does not seem to offer much to the entertainment industry beyond the prospect that someday there might be holographic movies and holographic television. More realistic applications of holography, however, have been found within the entertainment industry and promise to achieve major commercial importance.
It is generally believed that the holographic image of an object is perceived by a person as though it is the real object. In the course of our experimental work, we have had reason to question this belief. We reviewed the literature to determine if data obtained from human observers exists to support the belief and found that it did not. Thus, we initiated experimentation to gather it. We used the psychophysical method of adjustments to study distance perception of actual objects and holographic images of those objects. The data indicates that, for our test conditions, the belief is not supported.
Our eyes provide our brain with a pair of dissimilar images. The fusion of these dissimilar images into a single image in relief in "stereopsis." All stereoscopic imaging systems are based on this principal. The imaging system records a pair of dissimilar images simultaneously. The two images are then presented to our eyes simultaneously and in such a way that the right eye sees only the image from the right eye point of view and the left eye sees only the image from the left eye point of view.
This system for stereoscopic television uses relative camera to scene translating motion and does not require optical aids at the observer's eyes, presents a horizontal parallax (hologram like) 3-D full motion scene to a wide audience, has no dead zones or pseudo 3-D zones over the entire horizontal viewing field and operates on standard telecast signals requiring no changes to the television studio equipment or the home television antenna. The only change required at the receiving end is a special television projector. The system is compatible with pre-recorded standard color television signals. The cathode ray tube is eliminated by substituting an array of solid state charge couple device liquid crystal light valves which have the property to receive television fields in parallel from memory and which are arrayed in an arc for scanning purposes. The array contains a scrolled sequence of successive television frames which serve as the basis for 3-D horizontal viewing parallax. These light valves reflect polarized light with the degree of polarization made a function of the scene brightness. The array is optically scanned and the sequence rapidly projected onto a cylindrical concaved semi-specular screen that returns all of the light to a rapidly translating vertical "aerial" exit slit of light through which the audience views the reconstructed 3-D scene.
Recent methods of color holographic imaging utilizing white-light processing techninues are presented. These methods consist of rainbow holography, spatial holographic encoding, coherent and whitelight speckle effects, double-aperture encoding technique, dual-beam encoding principle, incoherent spatial encoding method and source encoding concept. The details of holographic construction and reconstruction processes are provided. The advantages and disadvantages of these color holographic imagings are discussed. The experimental demonstrations of these techniques are given.
From still pictures to interactive motion pictures, the horizons for optics in entertainment are infinite. All we can be certain of is that that the advances to date are only precursors to the future. In recent years, digital computers have added greatly to the repertoire of optical and mechanical special effects. Computer generated imagery will play an increasing role in the years immediately ahead.
Images generated by computer have started to appear in feature films (TRON, Star Trek II), in television commercials and in animated films. Of particular interest is the use of computer generated imagery which simulates the images which a real camera might have made if the imaged objects had been real.
This paper describes several uses of special purpose graphics hardware in television and motion picture entertainment, particulary 3D continuous-tone computer animation. It presents an approach that can accelerate the process of this type of animation by employing hardware used for real-time flight simulation.
This paper focuses on the recent emergence and development of real, time, computer-aided body tracking technologies and their use in combination with various computer graphics imaging techniques. The convergence of these, technologies in our research results, in an interactive display environment. in which multipde, representations of a given body motion can be displayed in real time. Specific reference, to entertainment applications is described in the development of a real time, interactive stage set in which dancers can 'draw' with their bodies as they move, through the space. of the stage or manipulate virtual elements of the set with their gestures.
An overview of recent advancement in digitally controlled vector scanned laser graphics (VSLG) is presented in this paper. Our new experimental full color projector, TOPA, is used as an example in discussing digital processes starting from artwork to finished program material. All the control nodes are digital in origin, thus such a system being naturally conducive to precise image and color manipulations. Many additional advantages are derivable in terms of programmability and editability, freedom from noise susceptibility, synchronization of program material to music and other media, long term data storage, and remote data updating of whole or partial program material.
The availability of digitized terrain data offers exciting possibilities for improved airborne navigation displays and for the correlated simulation of various sensors. In a development sponsored by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory (AFWAL), the Airborne Electronic Terrain Map System (AETMS) will produce plan- and perspective-view shaded relief displays in real time.
This paper presents a low cost alternative to expensive domes or set of large adjacent CRT displays arranged in optical mosaics to provide 360-degree hemispheric field of view. The concept is based on unique capabilities of interactive video discs together with head-mounted visually-coupled systems currently used in the design of low cost visual simulators for the military training community.
Due to increased audience sophistication, it is desirable to continually pursue better im-age quality in the motion picture process. This is especially true in the area of special effects because of the many duplicating stages. At Lucasfilm Ltd. custom anamorphic lenses with very high resolutions have been used for this purpose with great success. Two of these custom lenses are used during the film reproduction stages in our optical printers. These lenses are at fixed conjugates, and do not require focus changes. However, a new lens has been constructed for photography of "matte paintings", which has a unique two lens focusing system. This lens system is microprocessor controlled in conjunction with a motion control camera system, and allows for a continuously variable object distance between 30 feet and about 8 inches. Additionally, this system is designed to maintain a constant anamorphic squeeze ratio and a very low geometrical distortion. The lens exhibits resolution of 150 1p/mm within the focusing range.
In order to obtain a realistic motion picture which would completely surround the audience , a 65 mm camera was modified for 8 perforation format . A special camera lens was then designed and fabricated which images a 195 degree field as a circular image on the film . This is then projected with a 175 degree field of view projection lens ( also specifically designed for this ) . Both camera and projection lenses normally face upward . System design parameters are discussed .
The stage and close-up magicians have employed various types of optical effects in the presentation of magic illusions. Although certain magical effects "are done with mirrors", many other feats of magic employ no mirrors at all, but other optical-type devices in certain instances. The magician has relied on his magical creativity, misdirection, and showmanship, often more than certain optical and engineering-type devices for achievement of the magical effect. However, certain technical devices have always been a part of the magician's "bag-of-tricks". A brief overview of the magic, patent, and engineering literature is presented detailing what optical devices and effects magicians have and will continue to use. An important criterion is that the optical effect, however simple or complex, when combined with the intended illusion, give the audience the experience of an entertaining, mysterious, magical effect--not a science class type demonstration. Several examples are presented of optical effects in magic tricks which have been successfully employed. The main purpose of this paper is not to expose the secrets of magic, but to allow the optical engineer to gain an appreciation and understanding of how the magician develops and performs new effects, so that new optical devices and techniques might find their place in a show of illusions.
A very large camera synchronizable strobe system has been developed for motion picture special effects. This system, the largest ever built, was delivered to MGM/UA to be used in the movie "War Games". The system consists of 12 individual strobe heads and a power supply distribution system. Each strobe head operates independently and may be flashed up to 24 times per second under computer control. An energy of 480 Joules per flash is used in six strobe heads and 240 Joules per flash in the remaining six strobe heads. The beam pattern is rectangular with a FWHM of 60° x 48°.
The development of new visual entertainment forms has and will continue to have a powerful impact on the direction of our society. Foremost among these new forms will be the Holo's--moving Holographic images of anything imaginable, projected in mid air (a room, a dome) and so lifelike they are virtually indistinguishable from "reality". The Holo's and space development will ultimately transform entertainment and in the process, humanity, too. Meanwhile, the seeds of these changes are now being planted in entertainment trends and innovations whose implications are just beginning to emerge.
A new, 360°, panoramic scanning, 35mm film, motion picture camera has been developed. It is a part of the new Scanorama System. It utilizes one taking lens which exposes on continuously moving film through a slit (shutter). This paper describes the design and features of the camera.