Although the power conversion of energy fluctuation is a basic physical concept, the theoretical analysis of the performance for all the wide ranging design options for each application, as for example, solar energy conversion, is not simple. The basic physics of the reversible energy fluctuation (REF) converter is to transfer the energy fluctuations of the hot charged particles in the first layer across the thermal barrier of the second layer to the cool rectifying diodes of the third layer with an intrinsic efficiency in a reversible cycle for independent particles that is limited by the efficiency of the Carnot cycle. Because of the questions on this surprising high efficiency, an extended analysis of each question has been made. One question is whether impractically small circuit sizes limited to a few nanometers are required. The answer is there is no limitation on circuit size and that simple REF design options exist to achieve a conversion efficiency of 85% independent of circuit sizes. Another question is whether practical amounts of power can be obtained from energy fluctuations. The answer shows the inherent ability of the REF converter to transfer energy fluctuations across the thermal barrier at a power rate orders of magnitude larger than for any practical application. As a result of finding that several feasible and practical design options are available as solutions to each question, it is reasonable to conclude that near-term production is a feasible prospect.
Joseph C. Yater,
"Solar Reversible Energy Fluctuation Converter", Proc. SPIE 0407, Photovoltaics for Solar Energy Applications II, (8 September 1983); doi: 10.1117/12.935696; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.935696