A system has been developed by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory to measure the mass concentration of falling snow crystals. It is known as ASCME (Airborne Snow Concentration Measuring Equipment) and is described in this paper. ASCME's general performance has been evaluated based on concurrent measurements of precipitation rate. A strong correlation between airborne-snow mass concentration and precipitation rate yields an estimate of particle fall velocity (= 0.92 m/s) close to that observed by other researchers. Factors affecting system accuracy have been investigated and are discussed. Examples are given of the utilization of ASCME data in analyses of electromagnetic energy propagation in falling snow.
"A Technique For Measuring The Mass Concentration Of Falling Snow", Proc. SPIE 0414, Optical Engineering for Cold Environments, (22 September 1983); doi: 10.1117/12.935863; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.935863