This paper describes the perceptual and physical ergonomic problems inherent in attempting to control glare created by reflections on computer display screens. Several commonly used techniques to control glare are described, including their advantages and disadvantages. Methods to solve this problem through environmental and display housing design are discussed. The effects of glare control treatments on visual discomfort, operator performance, image quality and operator preferences are presented. Finally, the requirements of special applications are listed to demonstrate the need for continued research to solve not only the current problems with glare, but those of the future as well.
The last five years have seen the development and adoption of new kinds of standards for the display industry. This standardization activity deals with the complex human computer interface. Here the concerns involve health, safety, productivity, and operator well-being. The standards attempt to specify the "proper" use of visual display units. There is a wide range of implications for the display industry - as manufacturers of displays, as employers, and as users of visual display units. In this paper we examine the development of these standards, their impact on the display industry and implications for the future.
The increased use of multi-color displays in C31 applications has raised the question of color deficient operators. By screening operators who are involved in critical color discriminations and by the proper design and testing of the developed product, this concern can be eliminated.
The usual descriptions of depth perception have traditionally required the simultaneous presentation of disparate views presented to separate eyes with the concomitant demand that the resulting binocular parallax be horizontally aligned. Our work suggests that the visual input information is compared in a short-term memory buffer which permits the brain to compute depth as it is normally perceived. However, the mechanism utilized is also capable of receiving and processing the stereographic information even when it is received monocularly or when identical inputs are simultaneously fed to both eyes. We have also found that the restriction to horizontally displaced images is not a necessary requirement and that improvement in image acceptability is achieved by the use of vertical parallax. Use of these ideas permit the presentation of three-dimensional scenes on flat screens in full color without the encumbrance of glasses or other viewing aids.
Current methods of driver training have been criticized for a lack of realistic on-road accident avoidance training. using holography, one can create, with equipment located on the car, three-dimensional vehicles and people that actually appear to be on the road. The three-dimensional images are realistic, not ghost-like; they can be made to approach, recede, or move laterally on the road. They do not appear to be on the windshield. These properties give holography its unique value for driver training and testing, as well as provide a new spectrum of display capabilities. We created and used, on the road, a pre-prototype holographic driver training and testing system. Through the development and testing of the pre-prototype, we were able to assess the utility of holography in this application and identify problems to be resolved in developing an operational system. We found good user acceptance, even with this exploratory system, and identified a number of the factors that will be of importance in an operational system. Many related applications clearly exist with this new technology which has been developing exponentially in the last few years.
Visual science refers collectively to the research of the vision process from anatomical, neurological, physiological, psychophysical, opthalmological, and psychological points of view. Each of these disciplines in turn is concerned with some aspect of the multifaceted visual function. The work extends from studies of humans to a wide variety of other species with the ultimate goal of understanding this most critical link between living things and the environment.
This paper describes a new line of color polarizing elements employing high stability dichroic dyes as the chromophore. In addition to providing multicolor digital and graphic display information the importance of dichroic dye chromophores lie in their ability to withstand elevated temperatures and humidity. The main emphasis of this paper therefore, focuses on endurance performance comparisons between dichroic dyes and conventional iodine chromophores. Spectral transmission curves are also presented illustrating a custom color capability achieved through the additive and subtractive mixing principles.
CdSe TFT matrix circuits with 192 x 128 elements, 3.97" x 2.'5" active area have been fabricated by a process combining shadow masking and photolithography. High performance display panels in both reflective and transmissive modes have been demonstrated using twisted nematic liquid crystal packaged with the TFT matrix circuits. The power consumption of the display in reflective mode is less than 20 mW.
The Flatscreen® Gas-Electron-Phosphor (GEP) display uses a cold-cathode gas discharge as a source of electrons. These are accelerated to excite conventional CRT phosphors. The technology provides TV or faster data rates, a flat, thin, bright display with economical drive circuitry, full gray scale, and the potential of full color.
The envelope of the new Flatscreen® Gas-Electron-Phosphor (GEP) display may be a glass box or a new compliant-back construction. In either case, internal spacers withstand the atmospheric pressure to make possibe the use of thin, light glass for the facfplate. Display sizes well in excess of 4 ft will be feasible, at weights of about 6 lb/ft --much lower thah CRT weights. Circuitry for the new panel is ecnomical and can readily be arranged so that the Flatscreen® panel is driven like a CRT. The circuitry can be located more than 10 feet away from the panel.
The new electroluminescent (EL) display drivers introduced by Texas Instruments were developed using the patented B I DFET process which incorporates bipolar, double-diffused, N-channel and P-channel MOS transitors on the same monolithic substrate. The integrated circuit designs were facilitated by experience gained designing reliable high voltage ac plasma drivers. Functionality of these devices IA as based on what currently appears to be the most feasible approach to driving EL panels. This paper will discuss the important device characteristics and system considerations required to use these drivers.
A high contrast emitter using AC thin film electroluminescence has been developed in which an absorbing black backing is in optical contact with the transparent emitter. The unique features of this development over the previous state of the art is preservation of the steep brightness-voltage characteristics such as required for matrix addressed displays and provision for a pinhole open circuit failure mechanism so that long life emitters can be achieved.
Fabrication issues for EL panels up to one meter square are discussed. Particular attention is given the problem of fabricating electrode structures of indium tin oxide and aluminum on the large panels. Experimental results of processing on panels up to 26 x 32 cm active area with 512 x 640 pixels, using transparent electrodes with sheet resistance of less than 10 ohms per square and metal electrodes with sheet resistance less than 1 ohm per square are discussed. Brightness variations due to electrode resistance are given, and brightness as a function of drive voltage is reported for the 512 x 640 geometry.
This paper reports the development of engineering prototypes of a video data, and video clock, to those required by the panel. The driver high-information-content electroluminescent flat-panel monitor, the board contains the specialized high voltage IC circuitry for the EL panels. 6648M. The monitor is based on an EL display with 256 rows and 512 This circuitry is implemented with the new TI SN7555X-series devices. columns (131,072 pixels) with a pitch of 66.7 lines per inch. This panel Maximum compactness is achieved by extensive use of surface-mounted has the capability to display a full 25 lines of 80-character text or high- device technology and an innovative panel-to-circuit-board interconnect resolution graphics with all the advantages that make EL displays so system. This permits the entire panel/driver module to be packaged into desirable, i.e. high-contrast, crisp and flicker-free images, exceptional a unit with dimensions of 5.7 x 10.3 x 0.75 inches. The controller board linearity, all in a very compact and rugged package. has the same dimensions as the driver board, which gives the user the In addition to the panel, the monitor consists of a driver board and a flexibility of packaging the entire unit in a depth of 2 inches or 0.75 controller board. The controller board converts the signals provided by inches with a remotely located controller board. the user's standard CRT controller, i.e. vertical sync, horizontal sync,video data, and video clock, to those required by the panel. The driver board contains the specialized high voltage IC circuitry for the EL panels. This circuitry is implemented with the new TI SN7555X-series devices. Maximum compactness is achieved by extensive use of surface-mounted device technology and an innovative panel-to-circuit-board interconnect system. This permits the entire panel/driver module to be packaged into a unit with dimensions of 5.7 x 10.3 x 0.75 inches. The controller board has the same dimensions as the driver board, which gives the user the flexibility of packaging the entire unit in a depth of 2 inches or 0.75 inches with a remotely located controller board.
Early in the development of television, there arose a conflict between the capability of the human visual sense and reasonable technical practice to develop an image for comfortable viewing. A manipulation of how the television raster is structured, which is called "interlace", was developed to resolve the conflict.
This paper is complementary to Paper 457-24, presented by Mr. Steve Barre at this symposium. Barre's paper stated requirements for future workstations that are based on the desire for a specific level of performance from the human operator. He took into account such factors as the minimum data load that should be presented to the operator at one time to achieve adequate work through-put and the minimum level of performance required of the display device in order that the operator can absorb the data with a minimal level of stress and fatigue. Hardware restraints, though not ignored, were second to human factor restraints in Mr. Barre's paper. In contrast, this paper concentrates on what is achievable in the near future from a display hardware standpoint.
A compact "double winged" laser diode (LD) optical system for use in a laser printeK for computer graphics scans a width of 515 mm using two beams and focuses an 80 um (1/e z) diameter spot to produce a resolution of 480 dpi over the entire width. The system was developed by using a scanning module which combines two preobjective scanning units with one polygon. The configuration of two preobjective scanning is symmetrical with respect to a single 12-facet polygon. Each preobjective scanning module includes a compact LD module, an f0 lens, and a flat mirror. The LD module consists of a laser diode, a collimating lens, and a beam-shaped prism. This system has two scanning beams and each beam scans a half recording width. The paper discusses how the left and right scanning images are apposed at the image center. This system features compactness, greater image width, higher resolution, and a reduced need for high-precision polygon fabrication.
Cathode Ray Tube technology is mature. And, as we all know, maturity has its good and bad points. First the good points: The cost of CRTs is low, performance is high, their design is well understood, manufacturing facilities are well established, and their use is ubiquitous - leading to economies of scale in their mass production. On the other hand, less mature technologies are at hand whose advantages for some of today's applications cannot be met by CRTs. Thus, CRT engineers and work station designers who work with CPTs face significant new challenges based on the changing uses and users of advanced systems. Today, I will focus on some of the changes taking place in display use and discuss some engineering criteria that can be applied to satisfying new needs. Make no mistake about it, the criteria I suggest to you will tax the foreseeable state of the art.
The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the electron optical techniques developed to achieve state-of-the-art performance in a cathode ray tube-based, ultra-high resolution color film recording system. Proper selection and use of cathode ray tube, deflection yoke, magnetic focus lens, astigmatism correction, centering, and aperture flooding coils will be discussed. Absolute control over the size, shape and position of the scanning electron beam spot is necessary to produce a display capable of yielding over 7500 resolvable points across the CRT face with resulting image content in excess of 31 million picture elements per field. No single factor is responsible for the kind of performance outlined here. Rather, it is the refinement of a combination of disciplines integrating optics, electron optics, analog and digital electronics.
As weapons systems grow more sophisticated, so must the equipment that is used to test them. Aeronautical, ballistic and orbital testing take place on a regular basis at the Western Test Range (WTR). In order to insure the integrity of these flight test programs, a computerized decision support network has been developed. At the heart of this network is the Range Safety Display System (RSDS). RSDS is a real-time missile flight safety system. The displays present flight safety information in a timely and understandable manner. RSDS can be considered the control panel for the unmanned systems tested at the WTR. The Range Safety Display System was developed from a hybrid mechanical/graphic display system. The Hybrid RSDS was used to prove the concept of electronic display of missile flight performance. RSDS has been further developed to take advantage of the speed, flexibility and reliability of graphic displays. Other concepts and technologies, such as fiber optics, parametric control and front end processing have also been used.