Transmission-and reflection-mode holograms each have distinctive characteristics that merit them special roles in holographic imaging applications. For white-light illumination, "rainbow" transmission holograms generally offer brighter and deeper images, with higher resolution, than their reflection analogs. But a significant advantage of reflection holograms is that they can be hung directly on walls, like photographs and paintings, to be illuminated by a simple overhead spotlight. That is, their display format is compatible with established practice in other fine art domains. For non-specialists, especially in homes and small galleries, format familiarity and conservation of space are compelling factors, and severely limit the competitiveness of transmission holograms. Format compatibility also diminishes the "exotic-ness" of holograms, and the visibility of their installation, helping the viewer better appreciate the impact of the holographic three-dimensional image without unnecessary distraction.
Same special considerations for using holograms in theme park applications are discussed. A large format, real image hologram was designed and produced for use in the Imagination Pavilion at EPCOT, Florida. Sane problems in making the hologram and its ultimate show design application are examined in this paper.
The introduction of Agfa's HD series film along with adaptations of processing procedures has enhanced diffraction efficiency of the silver halide reflection hologram. This has in-fused new interest in the pursuit of multiple color holography. In this paper we explore the pre-exposure use of triethanolamine as an emulsion swelling agent and multiple exposure controls to achieve multi-color reflection holograms that maintain full aperture viewing along with non-shifting subject colors with the use of the HeNe laser.
A single-wavelength laser and a set of color-separated, black-and-white, two-dimensional photographs are used to produce three holographic stereograms, each containing a lightness scale corresponding to an appropriate concentration of the original primary color. The real images are individually projected and exposed onto a single holographic emulsion. This hologram, when reconstructed in white light, produces the overlapping spectra of three rainbow holograms. In image areas of equal density, these superimposed spectra create a shade of gray proportional to their combined intensities. All mixtures of colors and tones are found in other image areas. Detailed studies of the primary-color, viewing zones reveal misalignments and curvatures due to chromatic, spherical aberrations. The resulting color misregistration limits image depth to a few centimeters. However, within a restricted viewing area, three-dimensional images do appear in full natural color.
A unique type of holographic imagery and its large scale replication are described. The "Newport Button", which was designed as an advertising premium item for the Newport Corporation, incorporates a complex overlay of holographic diffraction gratings surrounding a three-dimensional holographic image of a real object. The combined pattern is recorded onto a photosensitive medium from which a metal master is made. The master is subsequently used to repeatedly emboss the pattern into a thin plastic sheet. Individual patterns are then die cut from the metallized plastic and mounted onto buttons. A discussion is given of the diffraction efficiencies of holograms made in this particular fashion and of the special requirements of the replication process.
The present talk describes some optical schemes for the formation of real images of persons in space when they look into the particular optical devices. When a person looks into the ordinary plane mirror, he sees his left-handed image located behind the mirror. It will be interesting and demonstrative of optical principles if one can devise a system by looking at which, a person sees his real erect image suspended in space in front of the device. These devices should not be very complicated and should be capable of easy fabri-cation involving plane and spherical reflecting or refracting surfaces. A few such devices are described with their geometrical and physical interrelationships. Some of these are constructed in small size and demonstrated. But to be very effective and impressive, they have to be constructed using large elements. Some suggestions are made to make these reasonably inexpensive and hence possibly can be displayed in any science museum.
The curve of commercial developments in optics is radically upward. It is logical to expect new major recurrent waves of advancement in applications of electro-optics to entertainment. We will find the optics professional riding the crests, as does the surfer who chooses the perfect or "fourth" wave
A description of systems in current use for the photography and projection of three dimensional motion pictures. These systems are intended primarily for polarized selection of left and right eye views through the use of suitable projection optics, in conjunction with a non-depolarizing projection screen. Polarized viewing glasses are worn by the viewer.
Three-dimensional cinematography is reviewed in the context of other imaging techniques, and technical and perceptual criteria are considered that determine the design of 3-D taking, printing, and projection equipment.
A high quality, yet cost effective system for creating special effects in full natural widescreen 3-D theatrical motion pictures has been developed and proven in actual use. This usage was in a production released in 3-D by a major studio distributor. This unique system offers the economies of single-film single-camera production. At the same time, it provides the quality and high resolution of a large film area, along with the versatility of variable convergence and a variable stereo base (variable interaxial). This system uses prime lenses or zoom lenses, including macro and telephoto lenses. It can be used for animation, aerials, miniatures, blue screen, live action closeups, process projection, rotoscoping, and many other types of special effects work in 3-D. Motion control effects may be achieved in a single pass. There are no polarizers or beamsplitters in the system, so there is very little light loss. Video and computer CRT images in full 3-D are additional valuable capabilities.
The limited use of stereoscopic 3-D displays may be due in part to the general belief that there are few, if any, tasks that require binocular vision. The importance of binocular depth cues varies with the type of task, as well as with a number of other factors. Ex-amples are given of several tasks that are nearly impossible without 3-D vision, suggesting that the potential benefits of 3-D display techniques may have been overlooked in a number of important application areas.
The VISIDEP process for creating images in three dimensions on flat screens is suitable for photographic, electrographic and computer generated imaging systems. Procedures for generating these images vary from medium to medium due to the specific requirements of each technology. Imaging requirements for photographic and electrographic media are more directly tied to the hardware than are computer based systems. Applications of these technologies are not limited to entertainment, but have implications for training, interactive computer/video systems, medical imaging, and inspection equipment. Through minor modification the system can provide three-dimensional images with accurately measureable relationships for robotics and adds this factor for future developments in artificial intelligence. In almost any area requiring image analysis or critical review, VISIDEP provides the added advantage of three-dimensionality. All of this is readily accomplished without aids to the human eye. The system can be viewed in full color, false-color infra-red, and monochromatic modalities from any angle and is also viewable with a single eye. Thus, the potential of application for this developing system is extensive and covers the broad spectrum of human endeavor from entertainment to scientific study.
Linearly polarized light has been used extensively as a means of encoding and decoding projected, superimposed stereoscopic images. An inherent property of such linear polarizer systems is that the observer wearing 3-D viewers must keep his head erect in order to maintain proper polarizer orientation and avoid troublesome ghost images. Circularly polarized light provides efficient extinction over a wide range of angular rotation, thus providing the opportunity to view 3-D comfortably with great freedom of head motion and position.
WED Enterprises has designed and built a modular projection system for the presentation of animated laser shows. This system was designed specifically for use in Disney theme shows. Its modular design allows it to be adapted to many show situations with simple hardware and software adjustments. The primary goals were superior animation, long life, low maintenance and stand alone operation.
This paper reflects upon the fact that movie cameras move and movie projectors do not. When a movie projector duplicates the angular movements of the camera, directionality is retained. Spatial correspondence between record and playback environments is achieved. Two different systems for making "moving movies" are described, as well as a large-scale environmental artwork incorporating this technique.
Image unstability can be measured by simple, low cost moire pattern sheet. Two types of moire are suggested: the linear read out moire and the angular read out moire. A reference sheet with scale is placed on the screen, such that the moire fringes can be produced when the reference sheet is owerlapping with a grating or a Zone plate pattern which are projected from recorded film. Using this simple technique, the defect of the film flatness can be meas ured from the slope of the curved moire fringes, and the vibration of the film can be measured by measuring the moire shiftness. An automatic real time test method is also suggested for measuring the curved moire fringe and the moire shiftness.