Machine-related writing errors are discussed in this paper. Butting errors are local writing errors which are manifested at the boundary of adjacent writing strips or fields. The overlay errors are concerned with the global-pattern registration errors on a mask set produced from the same machine. The absolute errors, often called machine-matching errors, are overlay errors of masks from different E-beam machines. The mechanisms of major error sources are described, and strategies to minimize them are also discussed. Finally a hypothetical design example is presented to demonstrate a highly accurate electron-beam litho-graphy system.
Chi K Chen, Chi K Chen,
"Electron-Beam Lithography Error Sources", Proc. SPIE 0471, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Techniques for Submicrometer Lithographies III, (18 June 1984); doi: 10.1117/12.942306; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.942306