I - FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS A. ASPECT : Non locality in wave mechanics. The Einstein-Bohr dispute and the optical test of Bell's inequalities.
A. Einstein and N. Bohr had a discussion about the role of probabilities in microphysics; as is well known the location and momentum of particles cannot be known precisely but only through probabilistic expressions. Einstein thought that complementary variables (hidden variables) are unknown at the present time and that the knowledge of those variables would suppress the actual uncertainty "God does not play random games". On the contrary, Bohr advocated the fundamental role of probabilities. During the sixties J. Bell established inequalities supporting the Einstein point of view. These inequalities are in contradiction with the predictions of quantum mechanics in some very rare situations. A.Aspect designed and realised an optical experiment where the correlation of polarisation of photons emitted by a single atom was measured with a very good signal to noise ratio. Moreover the orientation of the polarisation analyser was changed during the time of flight of photons. The experimental result is in full agreement with the point of view of N. Bohr : the uncertainty on the movement of particles is a fundamental component of the laws of nature and Bell's inequalities do not hold.