Spectral remote sensing has been practiced on a large scale since the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972. The limited information contained in this spectrally undersampled data set has led to the development of sophisticated statistical-inferential methods for data analysis. The results are usually limited by the availability of ground truth information. Recent technological developments have made it feasible to create narrow-band, contiguous, spectral image data sets that make possible the identification of surface cover materials based on the complete reflectance spectrum for each picture element. This capability will revolutionize the use of remote sensing data and require new deterministic image processing techniques to extract the full information content from the data. Sensors, based on the concept of imaging spectrometry and the new technology of area array infrared detectors, have been constructed and are candidates for shuttle and space platform flights.