A reject device from the NASA/JPL development program for the Space Telescope has been evaluated for its utility in imaging at extremely low flux levels. This thinned, backside-illuminated 800 x 800 imager is run at cryogenic temperatures, allowing long integration times on faint astronomical sources. The device has to date been successfully used for both high-dispersion echelle spectroscopy and for low-dispersion work with our Faint Object Grism Spectrograph (FOGS). In both these applications the T.I. 3-phase imager has shown exceptionally good performance compared to other CCD's.
John C. Geary,
"Astronomical Imaging With The Texas Instruments 3-Phase CCD", Proc. SPIE 0501, State-of-the-Art Imaging Arrays and Their Applications, (8 November 1984); doi: 10.1117/12.944679; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.944679