There are now a wide variety of image segmentation techniques, some considered general purpose and some designed for specific classes of images. These techniques can be classified as: measurement space guided spatial clustering, single linkage region growing schemes, hybrid linkage region growing schemes, centroid linkage region growing schemes, spatial clustering schemes, and split-and-merge schemes. In this paper, we define each of the major classes of image segmentation techniques and describe several specific examples of each class of algorithm. We illustrate some of the techniques with examples of segmentations performed on real images.
Robert M. Haralick,
Linda G. Shapiro,
"Image Segmentation Techniques", Proc. SPIE 0548, Applications of Artificial Intelligence II, (5 April 1985); doi: 10.1117/12.948400; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.948400