Large-aperture lightweight space optics must be designed from first principles so as to compensate for a multitude of disturbing influences if they are to perform to approximate theoretical perfection during a long period of life. Active control of structures and active optical components such as deformable mirrors are vital when dynamic performance is an issue. This overview deals with a hypothetical (but not unreal) nominal system, handling disturbances, and adaptive optics. The 2.4-meter Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror is held up as an example of an active deformable mirror designed with the latest mathematical tools.
George E. Seibert,
"Adaptive Telescope Design Using Computer Tools", Proc. SPIE 0550, Sensor Design Using Computer Tools II, (28 October 1985); doi: 10.1117/12.948854; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.948854