Conventional interconnect and switching technology is rapidly becoming a critical issue in the realization of systems using high-speed silicon and GaAs-based technologies. Optical interconnect technology promises to enhance performance significantly, provide relief from the pinout problem, decrease implementation complexity, and provide improvements to the flexibility of systems by allowing real-time reconfiguration of these systems. By releasing the bandwidth constraints on interconnects, the full processing speed capabilities of silicon and GaAs logic can be exploited to dramatically improve system throughput. Using existing silicon IC technology and discrete GaAs optoelectronic components, we have been developing techniques for chip-to-chip optical interconnects for high-speed communications. In addition, we are studying the impact of high-speed optical interconnects on computing and architecture development for future systems. Results of this work are presented in this paper.