During the past decade or so, numerous schemes have been proposed and developed for performing vector-matrix-based algebraic operations optically. This paper reviews the major methods, providing the basis for an understanding of more complicated opto-electronic architectures and algorithms.
William T. Rhodes,
"Optical Matrix-Vector Processors: Basic Concepts", Proc. SPIE 0614, Highly Parallel Signal Processing and Architectures, (28 July 1986); doi: 10.1117/12.960505; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.960505