Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is well established as an important technique for the examination of microelectronic materials, solid phase interfaces, and device structures. It is routinely possible to obtain microstructural images at a 1 nm level of resolution, and electron diffraction patterns and microchemical analyses at the 10 nm level. For many specimens, it is also possible to image directly the lattice structure of a material at a resolution of 0.2 - 0.3 nm, depending on the instrument available. Thus it is possible to examine structural features and defects at a near-atomic level of resolution. These capabilities not withstanding, many practicing materials engineers have had little exposure to TEM techniques. It is the purpose of this paper, then, to review briefly these techniques, and to illustrate their unique contribution to the field of microelectronic materials analysis. Particular emphasis will be placed on the study of thin films and interfaces, structures of prime importance to the semiconductor industry.