Crystal growth of titanium doped sapphire crystals is described. Effects of growth atmosphere, titanium concentration, dopant oxidation state are described. Growth of garnet hosts gadolinium scandium gallium garnet and gadolinium scandium aluminum garnet doped with chromium is described. Effects of impurities on optical characteristics of chromium doped garnets are described, as well as approach leading to improvement of optical quality. Growth of magnesium and yttrium aluminates and their doping with titanium is described.
Milan R Kokta, Milan R Kokta,
"Crystal Growth And Characterization Of Oxides Host Crystals For Tunable Lasers", Proc. SPIE 0681, Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, (9 March 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.939618; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.939618