Three different optical switching processes in ferroelectric materials were examined. These processes were electro-optic switching, photorefractive switching, and ferroelectric switching. The material properties that fundamentally limit each optical switching rate were determined and examples were presented.
D. M. Gookin, D. M. Gookin,
"Limitations In Optical Switching Rates In Ferroelectrics", Proc. SPIE 0684, Liquid Crystals and Spatial Light Modulator Materials, (19 December 1986); doi: 10.1117/12.936476; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.936476