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12 August 1986 Economical and Efficient Detector for Fluorescent X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy
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The available synchrotron radiation sources and those proposed for construction in the near future in the US and abroad can produce fluxes of x-radiation high enough that the fluorescent and scattered flux even from biological samples approach and will exceed acceptable levels of counting losses even in fast photon counting detector system. Ionization chambers in current integration mode can afford very high flux and large apertures. But they suffer time limitations in the fraction of the millisecond region, microphonics, and the necessity of a gas supply of very constant pressure. We have developed an alternative detector system consisting of a photomultiplier tube equipped with a highly efficient ZnS (Ag) scintillator in current integration mode. It can have apertures up to 5 inches in diameter and a time resolution adequate for rapid reaction studies using synchrontron radiation (70 ns decay time to 10%). In initial tests, we did not detect any saturation effects with the fluxes available. The advantages of these detectors seem to be simplicity and reliability in addition to freedom from environmental effects and the relatively low cost compared to other devices. These detectors have been used successfully at the Photon Factory, Japan and at CHESS.
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S. M. Khalid, G. Rosenbaum, and B. Chance "Economical and Efficient Detector for Fluorescent X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy", Proc. SPIE 0690, X-Rays in Materials Analysis: Novel Applications and Recent Developments, (12 August 1986);

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