A method for detecting motion based on the statistical properties of a video image will be discussed. This technique computes the mean and fourth moment about the mean, called kurtosis, for an image and compares the result with a previously stored value. The method involves observing a change in the shape of a video images' distribution and requires the storage of only a 16-bit digital word. A security intrusion system is described which incorporates a two level approach to motion detection: (1) motion detection based on the real-time pixel-by-pixel comparison between four selectable video lines and previously stored reference data; and (2) a higher order, near real-time verification of motion, using all of the images' pixels and based on the statistical properties of the image. The system is implemented in hardware using a TMS320 signal processor and charge coupled device (CCD) cameras.
Jack M. Younse, Jack M. Younse,
"Motion Detection Using The Statistical Properties Of A Video Image", Proc. SPIE 0697, Applications of Digital Image Processing IX, (10 December 1986); doi: 10.1117/12.976224; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.976224