10 March 1987 Characterization Of Ti In-Diffused Waveguides Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) And Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA)
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Proceedings Volume 0704, Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering IV; (1987) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.937203
Event: Cambridge Symposium-Fiber/LASE '86, 1986, Cambridge, MA, United States
Abstract
Ti in-diffused LiNb03 crystals were examined using EMPA and SIMS with a liquid metal ion probe. The switching region of the waveguide consisted of two 5 pm channels of sputter deposited Ti with a 5 pm gap. We found that after in-diffusing the Ti at -1050°C, the Z-cut crystal had a sharper Ti distribution profile when compared to a Y-cut crystal. This is consistent with previous studies showing that the bulk diffusion coefficient for Z-cut crystals is greater than that for Y-cut crystals. However, the maximum lateral extent of the Ti was similar in both cases. It was shown that under optimum conditions, the electron microprobe analysis volume was approximately 3 pm. This is much less than the measured values for the Ti FWHM and maximum lateral extents, which were on the order of 20 and 60 pm, respectively. Using a relatively new SIMS technique employing a Ga liquid metal ion gun (LMIG-SIMS), it was possible to image the surface Ti distribution and obtain SIMS line scans of the individual channels. There was excellent agreement in the shapes of the Ti distributions observed between the two techniques. Considerable overlap of the two Ti channels was evident in the switching region. The Y-cut crystal had essen-tially a single Ti profile, while two partially resolved peaks were observed for the Z-cut crystal.
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E. A. Leone, E. A. Leone, A. J. Signorelli, A. J. Signorelli, S. Sriram, S. Sriram, P. Vohralik, P. Vohralik, } "Characterization Of Ti In-Diffused Waveguides Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) And Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA)", Proc. SPIE 0704, Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering IV, (10 March 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.937203; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.937203
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