A Ti:LiNb03 interferometer modulator has been fabricated for instrument applications in the 1.3 μm wavelength region. It requires only 3.5 volts switching voltage, and has a fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of -4 dB. This includes a propagation loss of 2 dB and a fiber/device coupling loss of ~ 1 dB/end. Frequency response measurements indicate an optical 3 dB bandwidth of ~ 8 GHz. The corresponding drive voltage/bandwidth figure of merit of .44 volts/GHz is the lowest reported for a 1.3 um modulator.
David W Dolfi,
"1.3 µm Traveling Wave Interferometer Modulator For Instrument Applications", Proc. SPIE 0716, High Frequency Optical Communications, (23 February 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.937440; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.937440