A photonic electric field probe using the Pockels effect in bulk LiNbO3 is used to measure electromagnetic fields from 10 to 100 V/m. The observed frequency response is flat up to 1.6 GHz and extends beyond 2 GHz. Over the majority of the frequency range, field strengths down to about 6 V/m would be detectable above the noise floor when using a 3 kHz detection bandwidth. Present experimental results indicate a linear dynamic range of 30 dB for the probe. Increasing the optical carrier power and lowering the noise floor are expected to improve the dynamic range to above 50 dB.
Keith D. Masterson,
"Photonic Electric-Field Probe For Frequencies Up To 2 GHz", Proc. SPIE 0720, High Bandwidth Analog Applications of Photonics, (11 March 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.937618; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.937618