This report describes range data based obstacle avoidance techniques developed for use on an autonomous road-following robot vehicle. The purpose of these techniques is to detect and locate obstacles present in a road environment for navigation of a robot vehicle equipped with an active laser-based range sensor. Techniques are presented for obstacle detection, obstacle location, and coordinate transformations needed in the construction of Scene Models (symbolic structures representing the 3-D obstacle boundaries used by the vehicle's Navigator for path planning). These techniques have been successfully tested on an outdoor robotic vehicle, the Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV), at speeds up to 3.5 km/hour.
R. Terry Dunlay,
David G. Morgenthaler,
"Obstacle Avoidance On Roadways Using Range Data", Proc. SPIE 0727, Mobile Robots I, (25 February 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.937789; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.937789