Although laser scanning for contamination has become an accepted and crucial tool in the semiconductor industry, several misunderstandings still exist with many users with regard to its capabilities and limitations. These properties with respect to defect sizing, substrate influence, count accuracy and repeatability are discussed. A criterion is suggested for wafer acceptance based on the whole histogram of the contamination, rather than the present partial criteria. Projections are given for future evolution of the field.
"Contamination Detection On Semiconductor Wafers", Proc. SPIE 0774, Lasers in Microlithography, (1 September 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.940382; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.940382