The design of an optical system is a collaborative effort between the lens designer and the optical test development engineer. Components must be manufactured and assembled in final configurations, often with extremely difficult requirements on surface quality and on alignment. Optical test and assembly engineers are faced with the task of determining methods to measure these parameters to the required accuracies.
John Hannon, John Hannon,
"Alignment And Characterization Of Optical Systems And Components", Proc. SPIE 0776, Metrology of Optoelectronic Systems, (6 November 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.940442; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.940442