The imaging of objects through atmospheric turbulence has been studied for two particular cases: (i) when the telescope diameter D is much smaller than the atmospheric coherence scale ro and (ii) when D >> ro . Case (i) produces randomly moving images and case (ii) results in speckled images. In both cases, triple correlation techniques are investigated and compared with possible alternative methods, such as centroiding for (i) and the Knox-Thompson method for (ii). The triple correlation technique appears to be the most satisfactory one for both problems at low light levels.
G. R. Ayers,
J. C. Dainty,
M. J. Northcott,
"Photon Limited Imaging Through Turbulence", Proc. SPIE 0808, Inverse Problems in Optics, (10 September 1987); doi: 10.1117/12.941457; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.941457