The nodule has been successfully simulated for vapor deposition techniques by a modified hard-disk model. The influence of model parameters on nodule growth is more thoroughly explored in this paper. Also, by making minor changes in the model, simulations of amorphous film and sputtered film are considered. The model is compared with experimental results.
Douglas J. Smith,
"Modeling Of Nodular Defects In Thin Films For Various Deposition Techniques.", Proc. SPIE 0821, Modeling of Optical Thin Films, (2 February 1988); doi: 10.1117/12.941849; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.941849