The use of x-rays as a light source for medical diagnosis has been around since the early 20th century. The use of x-rays as a tool in nondestructive testing (for industrial use) has been around almost as long. Photographic film has been the medium that converts the x-ray energy that it encounters into areas of light and dark depending on the amount of energy absorbed. Referring to industrial use of x-rays only, many systems have been manufactured that replaced the photographic film with a combination of x-rays, fluorescent screen, and a television camera. This type of system was mainly used as a nondestructive testing tool to inspect various products (such as tires) for internal flaws and always used an operator to make the decisions. In general, the images produced by such systems were poor in nature due to lack of contrast and noise. The improvements in digital image processing and complex algorithms have made it possible to combine machine vision and x-rays to address a whole new spectrum of applications that require automatic analysis for flaw inspection. The objective of this presentation will be to familiarize the audience with some of the techniques used to solve automatic real-time x-ray problems. References will be made to real applications in the aerospace, pharmaceutical, food, and automotive industries.