We have seen, in the last four years, the microcomputer become the platform of choice for many image processing applications. By 1991, Frost and Sullivan forecasts that 75% of all image processing will be carried out on microcomputers. Many factors have contributed to this trend and will be discussed in the following paper.
Many image processing applications require digital images to be transffered to, or from disk storage system to various other devices at real-time. This paper discusses how architectures that utilize multiple wichester disks can achieve sustained storage/retrieval rates of over 18 megabytes per second using a high speed imaging network.
We present a method for displaying reduced resolution versions of images in order to quickly browse through a large archive of digital images. The browse image requires only one kilobyte and, thus, can be stored in the header of the image file and can be quickly retrieved from that disk file and transferred over a network for viewing on a high resolution image display. This method differs from past research on progressive transmission of reduced resolution images. Our browse image, the displayed image, and the original image are all of different spatial and color resolutions. Typical values would be a 32x32 by 8 bit encoded color browse image from a 512x512 by 24 bit full color original to be displayed at 128x128 full color. We analyze and compare several methods of compression and decompression of digital images reporting their performance on both isolated workstations and over the network.
Personal computer systems with an attached color display and color printer are now readily available. Users are learning that transforming data generated for the monitor to a form suitable for the printer is not simple. Manufacturers of traditional graphic arts prepress systems have learned how to make this transformation but are not disposed to reveal the art. As a result, it is necessary for users to develop their own translation software. Most of the users are new to the art and are not skilled in color reproduction. They are dissatisfied with the results they get when they use simple transformations, and they are willing to accept less than full graphic arts quality in exchange for a significant improvement in quality and simplicity. It is for this group that the following method of finding a suitable transformation for a specific monitor/printer pair was designed.
A laser scanner range finder has been arranged into an optical configuration that allows, with a given set of optical components, precise measurements over variable work-ing distances, fields of view, and depth of field. With minor displacements of some optical components within the basic range finder casing, its optical characteristics can be tailored to a given application. The range finder and its controller are combined to insure optimum signal to noise ratio for a variety of objects surface optical properties.
Optical prefilters, which make use of the double-refraction effect in crystalline quartz, reduce the amount of aliasing artifacts in the displayed image of a video system. This paper describes a new class of optical prefilter that produces different amounts of blur for different colors. This type of filter is useful with sensors that have unequal pixel densities in the three sensed colors.
The increasing need for optical security systems can be perfectly illustrated by reviewing the developments in security printing. The invention of photography in the 19th century forced the production of securities to introduce colour. Colour photography was encountered by the introduction of fine line structures, etc. The hate-love relationship between security printing and optical security systems has been beneficial for both of them in the past. With the invention of lasers and the application of the laser technology in the graphic arts, a merger of security printing and optical security systems has taken place.
There are 40 um wide guard bands between video tracks in Still Video Floppy according to specifications agreed upon by more than 40 companies world wide. We studied the possibilities of using the guard bands as additional tracks, and succeeded in recording audio signals on the guard bands without deterioration in the video signals recorded in advance on adjacent tracks. The video head used in this experiment has 3 gaps, with the third gap having a non zero azimuth angle. The center frequency of carrier of FM audio signal is chosen to be about 4 MHz instead of 6 MHz, which is the counter part in the above-mentioned specification. The quality of the playback audio signal is much better than that of telephone voice transmission, when the time compression/expansion ratio is 640, that is, about 10 seconds of audio signals can be recorded per track.
The Applied OPtics Laboratory currently imPorted a diamond turning lathe MSG-325. It is known that the lathe can cut workPieces with very high accuracy ( figure accuracy 0.00002 inch, surface finish 0.8 microinch Ra ). General method for measuring the sur-face form is interferometr9, but it needs a reference surface. For the asPheric surface and the surface with large aperture, it is very difficult to get a reference surface. We set uP a very simPle laser-CCD light diffraction analysis system. BY retrieving the Phase of diffraction light, we get the surface form. This method can be used to measure the asPheric surface without demanding of the refrence surface, and can be used to control the surface form on Production Process.
A substantial effort has been made to understand the requirements for a high-productivity scanning machine intended for the business imaging market. A system intended to handle business imaging applications would consist of a computer system, mass storage capability, scanning equipment and printing equipment. The advent of optical-disk and other high-density storage techniques has made possible economical digital storage. This is leading to the need for scanning capacity to utilize this capability. This paper will describe what productivity is for this market, the machine requirements and the implementation strategy. All of the concept work has been done to prove that the suggested approach is viable.
Recently, a major new area of application has emerged for personal computers. This application area isdesktop publishing or DTP. This market is expected to be one of the most rapidlygrowing and lucratrative of all personal computerapplications. It is possiblethataf all personal computer applicationstodate, DTP requiresthe mostsophisticated interconnection of hardware and software. Top rated sofware for DTP like Pagemaker by Aldus and Ventura Publisher by Xerox import files and images that can be created on other machines by software beyond the control of the DTP package. Xerox Ventura Publisher Version 1.1,forexample, can importfromten(10)differenttextformats, nine (9)different line-art formats and three (3) image formats. Users who are willing to conform to one of these acceptable formats can have their software output integrated intothe printed page. Additionally, many DTP systems employ an input scanner for scanning pictures or diagrams etc. Whatwe will examine are some of the systems issues relating to the whole DTP system.
Over the past several years, the Electronic Publishing Group at the MIT Media Laboratory has been conducting a family of media experiments which explore a new kind of broadcast: the distribution of data and computer programs rather than pre-packaged material. This broadcast is not directed to a human recipient, but to a local computational agent acting on his behalf. In response to instructions from both the broadcaster and the reader, this agent selects from the incoming data and presents it in a manner suggestive of traditional media. The embodiment of these media experiments is a news retrieval system where the news editor has been replaced by the personal computer. A variety of both local and remote databases which operate passively as well as interac-tively are accessed by "reporters." These "reporters" are actually software interfaces, which are programmed to gather news. Ideally, they are "broadcatching"; that is to say, watching all broadcast television channels, listening to all radio transmissions, and reading all newspapers, magazines, and journals. 1 A possible consequence of the synthesis of media through active processing is the merger of newspapers and television (figure 1). The result is either a newspaper with illustrations which move 2 or, conversely, print as television output. The latter is the theme of Network Plus.
This paper describes an electronic still photography system used to main-tain and disseminate art history images. The system is composed of three distinct sub-systems: image acquisition, database management, and image distribution. The image acquisition sub-system utilizes an image processor for acquiring images, analysing, enhancing and recording them on magnetic video discs. The database management sub-system is used to select images and prepare sequences for lectures and distribution. The image distribution sub-system contains video carrels for student viewing, as well as a hard-copy recorder for the distribution of images. Combined, the facility improves the utilization of the traditional 35mm slides by providing greater access to the collection for both students and faculty. This enhanced access to visual ma-terials substantially improves the faculty's abilty to teach the History of Art.
A first order model of an electrophotographic process under the influence of several process control loops has been developed. The model is used to examine the transient behavior of the system over a range of control conditions. Results illustrate the potential benefits of process control to image quality stability. However, it is also shown that poorly designed controls can lead to significant degradation in performance.
A high quality full color recording system using thermal dye transfer is developed for 200-300 micron thick plastic cards. This system can copy original pictures on each card in 4 colors with 8 dot/mm and 8 line/mm resolution and 64 levels/color. Only two minutes are required to copy the initial card, and 50 seconds for successive one. This system can also be applied to other cards such as identify cards.
A precise, multi-purpose color reproduction algorithm is introduced. This algorithm adopts 3-dimensional interpolation instead of matrix maskings or formulas. To install this calculation algorithm in devices, a simplified circuit using several LUT(ROM/RAM) and one multiplier/accumulator was developed. It can be operated up to 2 MHz pixel frequencies and its calculation error is estimated to be less than one-tenth of conventional method.