Over the past seven years, the requisite technology for high performance intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras has evolved. The present maturity of this technology provides a tool admirably suited to underwater imaging. This paper analytically addresses the requirements for underwater imaging devices, the present state of the ICCD art, and denotes directions for advanced development.
Lawrence H. Gilligan,
Clifford B. Cantrell,
"Intensified Focal Plane Array - A Tool For Underwater Imaging", Proc. SPIE 0980, Underwater Imaging, (16 December 1988); doi: 10.1117/12.948636; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.948636