9 February 1989 Characterization Of Titanium Diffusion During Fabrication Of LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides Using Analytical Electron Microscopy
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Proceedings Volume 0994, Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II; (1989); doi: 10.1117/12.960133
Event: O-E/Fiber LASE '88, 1988, Boston, MA, United States
Abstract
Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) has been used to characterize the microstructural evolution of thermally evaporated Ti films on single-crystal LiNbO3 substrates. The microstructural evolution exhibits three primary stages: Ti oxidation which is initially observed at 370°C and is essentially complete by ~500°C; formation of a two-phase microstructure of TiO2 and LiNb3O8 at ~800°C which grows epitaxially with respect to the LiNbO3 substrate; eventual diffusion of both phases occurs at 1000°C to leave only a Ti:LiNbO3 solid solution.
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Michael A. McCoy, William E. Lee, Norman A. Sanford, "Characterization Of Titanium Diffusion During Fabrication Of LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides Using Analytical Electron Microscopy", Proc. SPIE 0994, Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, (9 February 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.960133; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.960133
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KEYWORDS
Titanium

Diffusion

Titanium dioxide

Diffraction

Annealing

Reflection

Optoelectronic devices

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