Fractals and related mathematical models of chaotic phenomena have become active areas in research and applications in many diverse fields. These include weather forecasting, structural analysis, mapping, entertainment, biology, and many others. These fields appear to be a significant part of an emerging interdisciplinary science of complexity and complex systems. The uses of these models in the rapidly developing field of visual computing (i.e., the computational aspects of image sciences: image processing, analysis, and synthesis) are leading to many innovations. This paper will describe a range of activities at TASC and elsewhere illustrating significant new developments, and it describes a trend toward unification in visual computing using these techniques.