11 July 2016 Effects of training set selection on pain recognition via facial expressions
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Proceedings Volume 10011, First International Workshop on Pattern Recognition; 100110A (2016) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2241108
Event: First International Workshop on Pattern Recognition, 2016, Tokyo, Japan
This paper presents an approach to pain expression classification based on Gabor energy filters with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), followed by analyzing the effects of training set variations on the systems classification rate. This approach is tested on the UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain Archive, which consists of spontaneous pain images, hand labelled using the Prkachin and Solomon Pain Intensity scale. In this paper, the subjects pain intensity level has been quantized into three disjoint groups: no pain, weak pain and strong pain. The results of experiments show that Gabor energy filters with SVMs provide comparable or better results to previous filter- based pain recognition methods, with precision rates of 74%, 30% and 78% for no pain, weak pain and strong pain, respectively. The study of effects of intra-class skew, or changing the number of images per subject, show that both completely removing and over-representing poor quality subjects in the training set has little effect on the overall accuracy of the system. This result suggests that poor quality subjects could be removed from the training set to save offline training time and that SVM is robust not only to outliers in training data, but also to significant amounts of poor quality data mixed into the training sets.
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Warren A. Shier, Warren A. Shier, Svetlana N. Yanushkevich, Svetlana N. Yanushkevich, "Effects of training set selection on pain recognition via facial expressions", Proc. SPIE 10011, First International Workshop on Pattern Recognition, 100110A (11 July 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2241108; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2241108


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