27 March 1989 Temporal Pattern Recognition: A Network Architecture For Multi-Sensor Fusion
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Proceedings Volume 1002, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision VII; (1989) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.960284
Event: 1988 Cambridge Symposium on Advances in Intelligent Robotics Systems, 1988, Boston, MA, United States
A self-organizing network architecture for the learning and recognition of temporal patterns is proposed. This multi-layered architecture has as its focal point a layer of multi-dimensional Gaussian classification nodes, and the learning scheme employed is based on standard statistical moving mean and moving covariance calculations. The nodes are implemented in the network architecture by using a Gaussian, rather than sigmoidal, transfer function acting on the input from numerous connections. Each connection is analogous to a separate dimension for the Gaussian function. The learning scheme is a one-pass method, eliminating the need for repetitive presentation of the teaching stimuli. The Gaussian classes developed are representative of the statistics of the teaching data and act as templates in classifying novel inputs. The input layer employs a time-based decay to develop a time-ordered representation of the input stimuli. This temporal pattern recognition architecture is used to perform multi-sensor fusion and scene analysis for ROBART II, an autonomous sentry robot employing heterogeneous and homogeneous binary (on / off) sensors. The system receives sensor packets from ROBART indicating which sensors are active. The packets from various sensors are integrated in the input layer. As time progresses these sensor outputs become ordered, allowing the system to recognize activities which are dependent, not only on the individual events which make up the activity, but also on the order in which these events occur and their relative spacing throughout time. Each Gaussian classification node, representing a learned activity as an ordered sequence of sensor outputs, calculates its activation value independently, based on the activity in the input layer. These Gaussian activation values are then used to determine which, if any, of the learned sequences are present and with what confidence. The classification system is capable of recognizing activities despite missing, extraneous or slightly out-of-order inputs. An important predictive quality is also present. This system can predict that an activity may be about to occur prior to receiving confirmation that all component events have occurred. Overall, the temporal pattern recognition system allows the robot to go beyond the alert / no alert stage based on a simple weighted count of the sensors firing. ROBART is now able to determine which activities are occurring, enabling it to intelligently act on this information.
© (1989) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
C. E. Priebe and D. J. Marchette "Temporal Pattern Recognition: A Network Architecture For Multi-Sensor Fusion", Proc. SPIE 1002, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision VII, (27 March 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.960284; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.960284


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