31 October 2016 3D polarisation speckle as a demonstration of tensor version of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem for stochastic electromagnetic beams
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Abstract
Laser speckle has received extensive studies of its basic properties and associated applications. In the majority of research on speckle phenomena, the random optical field has been treated as a scalar optical field, and the main interest has been concentrated on their statistical properties and applications of its intensity distribution. Recently, statistical properties of random electric vector fields referred to as Polarization Speckle have come to attract new interest because of their importance in a variety of areas with practical applications such as biomedical optics and optical metrology. Statistical phenomena of random electric vector fields have close relevance to the theories of speckles, polarization and coherence theory.

In this paper, we investigate the correlation tensor for stochastic electromagnetic fields modulated by a depolarizer consisting of a rough-surfaced retardation plate. Under the assumption that the microstructure of the scattering surface on the depolarizer is as fine as to be unresolvable in our observation region, we have derived a relationship between the polarization matrix/coherency matrix for the modulated electric fields behind the rough-surfaced retardation plate and the coherence matrix under the free space geometry. This relation is regarded as entirely analogous to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem of classical coherence theory. Within the paraxial approximation as represented by the ABCD-matrix formalism, the three-dimensional structure of the generated polarization speckle is investigated based on the correlation tensor, indicating a typical carrot structure with a much longer axial dimension than the extent in its transverse dimension.
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Ning Ma, Juan Zhao, Steen G. Hanson, Mitsuo Takeda, Wei Wang, "3D polarisation speckle as a demonstration of tensor version of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem for stochastic electromagnetic beams", Proc. SPIE 10022, Holography, Diffractive Optics, and Applications VII, 100222F (31 October 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2247856; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2247856
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