6 February 2017 Multimodal fiber-probe spectroscopy for the diagnostics and classification of bladder tumors
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The gold standard for the detection of bladder cancer is white light cystoscopy, followed by an invasive biopsy and pathological examination. Tissue pathology is time consuming and often prone to sampling errors. Recently, optical spectroscopy techniques have evolved as promising techniques for the detection of neoplasia. The specific goal of this study is to evaluate the application of combined auto-fluorescence (excited using 378 nm and 445 nm wavelengths) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate normal bladder tissue from tumor at different grades. The fluorescence spectrum at both excitation wavelengths showed an increased spectral intensity in tumors with respect to normal tissues. Reflectance data indicated an increased reflectance in the wavelength range 610 nm - 700 nm for different grades of tumors, compared to normal tissues. The spectral data were further analyzed using principal component analysis for evaluating the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing tumor. The spectral differences observed between various grades of tumors provides a strong genesis for the future evaluation on a larger patient population to achieve statistical significance. This study indicates that a combined spectroscopic strategy, incorporating fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy, could improve the capability for diagnosing bladder tumor as well as for differentiating tumors in different grades.
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Suresh Anand, Riccardo Cicchi, Riccardo Fantechi, Mauro Gacci, Gabriella Nesi, Marco Carini, and Francesco S. Pavone "Multimodal fiber-probe spectroscopy for the diagnostics and classification of bladder tumors", Proc. SPIE 10038, Therapeutics and Diagnostics in Urology: Lasers, Robotics, Minimally Invasive, and Advanced Biomedical Devices, 100380J (6 February 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2250267; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2250267

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