27 February 2017 Fiber-probe optical spectroscopy discriminates normal brain from focal cortical dysplasia in pediatric subjects
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Abstract
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is an abnormality in the cerebral cortex that is caused by malformations during cortical development. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electro-corticography (ECoG) are used for detecting FCD. On the downside, MRI is very much insensitive to small malformations in the brain, while ECoG is an invasive and time consuming procedure. Recently, optical techniques were widely exploited as a minimally invasive and quantitative approaches for disease diagnosis. These techniques include fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. The aim of this investigation is to study the diagnostic performances of optical spectroscopy incorporating fluorescence (at 378 nm and 445 nm excitation wavelengths) and Raman spectroscopy (at 785 nm excitation) for the discrimination of FCD from normal brain in pediatric subjects. The study included 10 normal and 17 FCD tissue sites from 3 normal and 7 FCD samples. The emission spectra of FCD at 378 nm excitation wavelength presented a blue-shifted peak with respect to normal tissue. Prominent spectral differences between normal and FCD tissue were observed at 1298 cm-1, 1302 cm-1, 1445 cm-1 and 1660 cm-1 using Raman spectroscopy. Tissue classification models were developed using a multivariate statistical method, principal component analysis. This study demonstrates that a combined spectroscopic approach can provide a better diagnostic capability for classifying normal and FCD tissues. Further, the implementation of the technology within a fiber probe could open the way for in vivo diagnostics and intra-operative surgical guidance.
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Suresh Anand, Riccardo Cicchi, Flavio Giordano, Valerio Conti, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Renzo Guerrini, Francesco Saverio Pavone, "Fiber-probe optical spectroscopy discriminates normal brain from focal cortical dysplasia in pediatric subjects", Proc. SPIE 10050, Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics, 1005005 (27 February 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2250265; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2250265
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