Brain tumors are characterized with morphological changes at cellular level such as enlarged, non-spherical nuclei, microcalcifications, cysts, etc., and are highly vascularized. In this study, two research-grade optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems operating at ~800 nm and ~1060 nm with axial resolution of 0.95 µm and 3.5 µm in biological tissue respectively, were used to image in vivo and ex vivo the structure of brain tumours in rats. Female Fischer 344 rats were used for this study, which has received ethics clearance by the Animal Research Ethics Committees of the University of Waterloo and the University Health Network, Toronto. Brain tumours were induced by injection of rat brain cancer cell line (RG2 glioma) through a small craniotomy. Presence of brain tumours was verified by MRI imaging on day 7 post tumour cells injection. The in vivo OCT imaging session was conducted on day 14 of the study with the 1060 nm OCT system and both morphological OCT, Doppler OCT and OMAG images were acquired from the brain tumour and the surrounding healthy brain tissue. After completion of the imaging procedure, the brains were harvested, fixed in formalin and reimaged after 2 weeks with the 800 nm OCT system. The in vivo and ex vivo OCT morphological images were correlated with H and E histology. Results from this study demonstrate that UHR-OCT can distinguish between healthy and cancerous brain tissue based on differences in structural and vascular pattern.