22 February 2017 A computerized tutor prototype for prostate cryotherapy: key building blocks and system evaluation
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This paper focuses on the evaluation of a prototype for a computer-based tutoring system for prostate cryosurgery, while reviewing its key building blocks and their benchmark performance. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobe placement, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, simulates cryoprobe insertion, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a pre-selected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computergenerated plan, created for each case study by a previously developed planning algorithm, known as bubble-packing. While the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal history, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside of the operation room. System validation of the tutor has been performed by collecting training data from surgical residents, having no prior experience or advanced knowledge of cryotherapy. Furthermore, the system has been evaluated by graduate engineering students having no formal education in medicine. In terms of match between a planning isotherm and the target region shape, results demonstrate medical residents’ performance improved from 4.4% in a pretest to 37.8% in a posttest over a course of 50 minutes of training (within 10% margins from a computer-optimized plan). Comparing those results with the performance of engineering students indicates similar results, suggesting that planning of the cryoprobe layout essentially revolves around geometric considerations.
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Yoed Rabin, Kenji Shimada, Purva Joshi, Anjali Sehrawat, Robert Keelan, Dona M. Wilfong, and James T. McCormick "A computerized tutor prototype for prostate cryotherapy: key building blocks and system evaluation", Proc. SPIE 10066, Energy-based Treatment of Tissue and Assessment IX, 100660Z (22 February 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2257151; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2257151

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