Ultrasonic reflectance/scattering measurements have been made on metal samples possessing a large range of surface roughness values. The root-mean-square roughnesses Rq ranged from 0.3 to nearly 40 µm on the mostly periodic surfaces. The echo amplitude from short incident pulses of ultrasound in the frequency range of 1 to 30 MHz was used, in the manner of a comparator, to measure relative roughnesses with an area-averaging approach defined by the ultrasonic beam spot size. Ultrasonic wavelengths ranged from about 50 to 300 µm at these frequencies, and the beam spot sized varied from 0.2 to 5 mm in diameter. Both air and fluid coupling techniques were used between the sensor (transducer) and surface, on both static and rapidly (in excess of 5 m/sec surface speed) moving parts. On static surfaces, a resolution of better than 1.0 µm Rq was achieved at the higher ultrasonic frequencies. By focusing the ultrasonic beam at 30 MHz, a profilometry capability was demonstrated on a 1 µm Rq sinusoidal specimen of 800 µm wavelength.
G. V. Blessing,
D. G. Eitzen,
"Ultrasonic Sensor For Measuring Surface Roughness", Proc. SPIE 1009, Surface Measurement and Characterization, (21 March 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.949180; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.949180