17 February 2017 Laser processing of thick Li(NiMnCo)O2 electrodes for lithium-ion batteries
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Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries became the most promising types of mobile energy storage devices due to their high gravimetric and volumetric capacity, high cycle life-time, and low self-discharge. Nowadays, the cathode material lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) is one of the most widely used cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries due to many advantages such as high energy density (>150 Wh kg-1) on cell level, high power density (650 W kg-1 @ 25 °C and 50 % Depth of Discharge) [1], high specific capacity (163 mAh g-1) [2], high rate capability and good thermal stability in the fully charged state. However, in order to meet the requirements for the increasing demand for rechargeable high energy batteries, nickel-rich NMC electrodes with specific capacities up to 210 mAh g-1 seem to be the next generation cathodes which can reach on cell level desired energy densities higher than 250 Wh kg-1 [3]. Laser-structuring now enables to combine both concepts, high power and high energy lithium-ion batteries. For this purpose, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathodes were produced via tape casting containing 85-90 wt% of active material with a film thickness of 50-260 μm. The specific capacities were measured using galvanostatic measurements for different types of NMC with varying nickel, manganese and cobalt content at different charging/discharging currents ("C-rates"). An improved lithium-ion diffusion kinetics due to an increased active surface area could be achieved by laser-assisted generating of three dimensional architectures. Cells with unstructured and structured cathodes were compared. Ultrafast laser ablation was used in order to avoid a thermal impact to the material. It was shown that laser structuring of electrode materials leads to a significant improvement in electrochemical performance, especially at high charging and discharging C-rates.
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J.-H. Rakebrandt, P. Smyrek, Y. Zheng, H. J. Seifert, W. Pfleging, "Laser processing of thick Li(NiMnCo)O2 electrodes for lithium-ion batteries", Proc. SPIE 10092, Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XI, 100920M (17 February 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2252093; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252093
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