5 May 2017 Front Matter: Volume 10103
Abstract
This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10103, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction (if any), and Conference Committee listing.
Sadwick and Yang: Front Matter Volume 10103

The papers in this volume were part of the technical conference cited on the cover and title page. Papers were selected and subject to review by the editors and conference program committee. Some conference presentations may not be available for publication. Additional papers and presentation recordings may be available online in the SPIE Digital Library at SPIEDigitalLibrary.org.

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Author(s), ‘Title of Paper,” in Terahertz, RF, Millimeter, and Submillimeter-Wave Technology and Applications X, edited by Laurence P. Sadwick, Tianxin Yang, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 10103 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2017) Seven-digit Article CID Number.

ISSN: 0277-786X

ISSN: 1996-756X (electronic)

ISBN: 9781510606470

ISBN: 9781510606487 (electronic)

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Authors

Numbers in the index correspond to the last two digits of the six-digit citation identifier (CID) article numbering system used in Proceedings of SPIE. The first four digits reflect the volume number. Base 36 numbering is employed for the last two digits and indicates the order of articles within the volume. Numbers start with 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 0A, 0B…0Z, followed by 10-1Z, 20-2Z, etc.

Ade, Peter A. R., 0N

Agapiou, G., 0M

Ahmadi, Farzad, 1F, 1V

Alharbi, Khalid H., 1J

Al-Khalidi, Abdullah, 1J

Alland, S., 0K

Apostolopoulos, D., 0M

Argyris, N., 0M

Aronoff, A. D., 0K

Avramopoulos, H., 0M

Barnes, Crispin H. W., 0D

Beere, Harvey E., 07, 0D

Benea-Chelmus, Ileana-Cristina, 05

Bessaudou, Annie, 1H

Bledt, Carlos M., 07

Bonzon, Christopher, 05

Borngräber, Johannes, 1L

Bracken, Colm P., 0N

Carelli, P., 1M

Carnio, B. N., 0G, 1K

Castellano, M. G., 1M

Chandrayan, Neelima, 1S

Chang, Chi-Hsiang, 22

Chen, Jian, 0A, 1R

Chiarello, F., 1M

Cibella, S., 1M

Clark, C., 18

Colleoni, Margherita M. P., 1T

Crunteanu, Aurelian, 1H

Degl’Innocenti, Riccardo, 07

Denisov, Alexander, 08

Doherty, Stephen, 0N

Dris, S., 0M

Du, Tao, 1W, 1X

Duling, Irl N. III., 0T

Elezzabi, A. Y., 0G, 1K

Eu, Guan Chai, 1N

Faist, Jérôme, 05

Ferraro, R., 0K

Figueiredo, José, 1J

Fip, Tassilo, 15

Firby, C. J., 0G

Fleischman, E., 0K

Fleming, L., 18

Friederich, Fabian, 0B

Fukuda, Hiroaki, 19

Gaggero, A., 1M

Ge, Chunfeng, 0I, 0W, 1P

Giannoulis, G., 0M

Gibson, D., 18

Giovine, E., 1M

Goodhue, William, 1S

Gradziel, Marcin L., 0N

Green, Nicolas G., 1I

Greig, S. R., 0G

Grünert, Jan, 0E

Gu, Min, 1R

Guo, Cheng, 0W

Haring Bolívar, Peter, 0B

Harrington, James A., 07

Hasanuzzaman, G. K. M., 20

Hesjedal, Thorsten, 0D

Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm, 1L

Huitema, Laure, 1H

Humbert, Georges, 1H

Hutson, D., 18

Ida, Nathan, 1F, 1V

Iezekiel, Stavros, 20

Jia, Dongfang, 0I, 1P

Jia, Xiaoqing, 0A, 1R

Jiang, Chengtao, 0A, 1R

Jiang, Zhou, 0A, 1R

Kahl, Matthias, 0B

Kalinauskaite, Eimante, 0N

Kamboj, Varun S., 0D

Kanaya, Haruichi, 1N

Kang, Lin, 0A, 1R

Kato, Kazutoshi, 1N

Kawase, Kodo, 19

Kelly, A. E., 0Y

Khalid, Ata, 1J

Kissinger, Dietmar, 1L

Koga, Masahiko, 1N

Kosowsky, L. H., 0K

Kostikidou, L., 0M

Lamarre, Jean-Michel, 0N

Leoni, R., 1M

Leroy, Jonathan, 1H

Lessi, C., 0M

Liu, Hao, 08

Liu, Jia, 0E

Liu, Jing, 1T

Llorente, Roberto, 10

Lu, Zhaoyu, 0W, 1P

Ma, Rui, 1W, 1X

MacGregor, C., 18

Macho, Andres, 10

Maffei, Bruno, 0N

McAuley, Ian, 0N

McCarthy, Darragh N., 0N

Melzer, Jeffrey E., 07

Minami, Tsubasa, 19

Mirzaei, Sahar, 1I

Mitrofanov, Oleg, 07

Moraitis, N., 0M

Murphy, J. Anthony, 0N

Orlianges, Jean-Christophe, 1H

O’Sullivan, Créidhe, 0N

Palm, Dominic, 15

Panagopoulos, A. D., 0M

Papafili, I., 0M

Peacocke, Tully, 0N

Perdikouris, S., 0M

Pu, Suan Hui, 1I

Qian, Xifeng, 1S

Qiu, Jinghui, 08

Rahm, Marco, 15

Raphael, N., 0Y

Reid, S., 18

Ritchie, David A., 07, 0D

Rodrigues, Gil C., 1J

Rotaru, Mihai, 1I

Rothbart, Nick, 1L

Savini, Giorgio, 0N

Scalari, G., 1M

Schmalz, Klaus, 1L

Schunemann, P. G., 0G

Sefler, George A., 0Z

Shaw, T. Justin, 0Z

Shemelya, Corey, 15

Singh, Angadjit, 0D

Song, S., 18

Spatharakis, C., 0M

Stapleton, Andrew D., 0Z

Tai, Wenlong, 0I

Takiguchi, Koichi, 1D

Thow, T., 0Y

Torrioli, G., 1M

Trappe, Neal A., 0N

Tsugami, Kota, 1N

Tu, Xuecou, 0A, 1R

Valley, George C., 0Z

Vidal, Borja, 10, 1T

Waldie, Joanna, 07

Wallis, Robert, 07

Wan, Chao, 0A, 1R

Wang, Jue, 1J

Wang, Qian, 1T

Wang, Qiyu, 1W, 1X

Wang, Zhaoying, 0W, 1W, 1X

Wasige, Edward, 1J

Weisenstein, Christian, 0B

White, Jeffrey S., 0T

Wilson, Daniel, 0N

Wu, Chao-Hsin, 22

Wu, Peiheng, 0A, 1R

Xiao, Peng, 0A, 1R

Xing, Da, 1P

Yang, Lucas, 22

Yang, Tianxin, 0I, 0W, 1P, 1W, 1X

Yilmaz, Selahattin Berk, 1L

Yin, Xinyu, 08

Yuan, Quan, 1W, 1X

Zainullin, Airat, 10

Zawilski, K. T., 0G

Zhai, Shimin, 1R

Conference Committee

Symposium Chairs

  • Jean-Emmanuel Broquin, IMEP-LAHC (France)

  • Shibin Jiang, AdValue Photonics, Inc. (United States)

Symposium Co-chairs

  • Connie J. Chang-Hasnain, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

  • Graham T. Reed, Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton (United Kingdom)

Program Track Chair

  • James G. Grote, Air Force Research Laboratory (United States)

  • Conference Chairs

Conference Chairs

  • Laurence P. Sadwick, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

  • Tianxin Yang, Tianjin University (China)

Conference Program Committee

  • René Beigang, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (Germany)

  • Jianji Dong, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China)

  • Frank Ellrich, Fraunhofer-Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik (Germany)

  • Robert H. Giles, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

  • R. Jennifer Hwu, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

  • J. Anthony Murphy, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)

  • Créidhe O’Sullivan, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)

  • Kyung Hyun Park, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

  • Alessia Portieri, TeraView Ltd. (United Kingdom)

  • Jinghua Teng, A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (Singapore)

  • Michael Weibel, Joint Research and Development, Inc. (United States)

  • Jiangfeng Zhou, University of South Florida (United States)

Session Chairs

  • 1 THz Sources and Detectors I

    Tianxin Yang, Tianjin University (China)

    Laurence P. Sadwick, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

  • 2 Imaging and Security

    Robert H. Giles, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

    Frank Ellrich, Fraunhofer-Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik (Germany)

  • 3 Spectroscopy

    Eimante Kalinauskaite, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)

    Laurence P. Sadwick, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

  • 4 RF-Submillimeter-Wave I

    Laurence P. Sadwick, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

    Robert H. Giles, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

  • 5 Thickness Measurements using Terahertz Technologies I

    Frank Ellrich, Fraunhofer-Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik (Germany)

    René Beigang, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (Germany)

  • 6 Thickness Measurements using Terahertz Technologies II

    Frank Ellrich, Fraunhofer-Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik (Germany)

    Eimante Kalinauskaite, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland)

  • 7 RF-Submillimeter-Wave II

    Kyung Hyun Park, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    R. Jennifer Hwu, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

  • 8 Metamaterials I

    Marco Rahm, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    Kyung Hyun Park, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

  • 9 Biomedical Applications

    Robert H. Giles, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

    Tianxin Yang, Tianjin University (China)

  • 10 Innovations

    Robert H. Giles, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

    Tianxin Yang, Tianjin University (China)

  • 11 Metamaterials II

    Marco Rahm, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    Frank Ellrich, Fraunhofer-Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik (Germany)

  • 12 Terahertz Detectors and Sources II

    Jinghua Teng, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE) (Singapore)

    Robert H. Giles, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

  • 13 Terahertz Detectors and Sources III

    Jiangfeng Zhou, University of South Florida (United States)

    Robert H. Giles, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

  • 14 Terahertz Detectors and Sources IV

    Laurence P. Sadwick, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

    R. Jennifer Hwu, InnoSys, Inc. (United States)

Introduction

The 2017 Terahertz, RF, Millimeter, and Submillimeter-Wave Technology and Applications VII Conference was divided into fourteen sessions reflecting specific categories as follows:

Session 1 THz Sources and Detectors I,

Session 2 Imaging and Security,

Session 3 Spectroscopy,

Session 4, RF-Submillimeter-Wave,

Session 5 Thickness Measurements using Terahertz Technologies I,

Session 6 Thickness Measurements using Terahertz Technologies II,

Session 7 RF-Submillimeter-Wave II,

Session 8 Metamaterials I,

Session 9 Biomedical Applications,

Session 10 Innovations,

Session 11 Metamaterials II,

Session 12 Terahertz Detectors and Sources II,

Session 13 Terahertz Detectors and Sources III, and

Session 14 Terahertz Detectors and Sources IV, and a poster session.

Session 1 began with an invited talk presented by Professor Robert Giles’ research group on Terahertz source-receiver technologies: biomedical imaging followed by a talk on polarization dependent resonance manipulation by terahertz meta-molecules, with additional talks on plasmonics-enhanced large-area terahertz detectors by Professor Mona Jarrahi’s research group and a high-sensitivity intensity correlation measurements for photon statistics at terahertz frequencies presented by Ileana-Cristina Benea-Chelmus who was a Best Student Paper Award winner.

Session 2 began with a talk on mechanically robust cylindrical metal terahertz waveguides for cryogenic applications, followed by talks on simplest passive millimeter wave discriminator for the finding of objects, sparse multistatic line-array-based 3D terahertz imaging system with real-time capability for industrial applications, a low noise readout integrated circuit for Nb5N6 microbolometer array detector and, completely the session, a talk on conception and realization of a semiconductor based 240GHz full 3D MIMO imaging system.

Session 3 began with a talk on material anisotropy effects in dielectric THz metamaterials, followed by presentations on temperature evolution of topological surface states in bi2Se3 thin films studied using terahertz spectroscopy, advanced temporal characterization of free electron laser pulses at European XFEL by THz photoelectron spectroscopy, InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detectors integrated with broadband antenna, (012)-cut chalcopyrite ZnGeP2 as a high-bandwidth terahertz electro-optic detection crystal, and concluding with a talk on strong coupling of THz surface plasmon polaritons to complementary metasurfaces.

Session 4 began with a talk on picosecond-pulse generation over 10 GHz repetition rate based on cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers, followed by talks on ultra-compact electromagnetic wave sensor featuring electro-optics polymer infiltrated one-dimensional photonic-crystal-slotted waveguide, 77 GHz radar for first responders, terahertz wireless communication based on InP-related devices, field-trial demonstration of an extended-reach GPON-supporting 60-GHz indoor wireless access, and concluding with a talk on radiation patterns of multimode feed-horn-coupled bolometers for FAR-IR space applications.

Session 5 was the first of two sessions on thickness measurements using terahertz technologies which included a number of talks from world experts on this subject and began with a Keynote presentation given by J.L.M. van Mechelen on towards the industrialization of THz technology: the case of quality control of paper during production followed by an invited talk on using terahertz-pulsed imaging (TPI) to study osmotic tablets, a talk on commercial perspective in THz spectroscopy, sensing and imaging, and concluding with a talk on thickness determination of wet coatings using self-calibration method.

Session 6 was the second of two sessions on thickness measurements using terahertz technologies which included a number of talks from world experts on this subject and began with an invited talk on film thickness determination using ultrashort terahertz pulses by Professor Kodo Kawase and his research group, online terahertz thickness measurement in films and coatings by Irl Duling, followed by talks on terahertz thickness measurements for real industrial applications: from automotive paints to aerospace industry, and concluding with a talk on an accurate frequency-modulated continuous-wave method for fast terahertz thickness measurements.

Session 7 began with a talk on Nyquist pulse generator by techniques of frequency synthetization, followed by talks on microwave photonic filter with continuous tunability using a wavelength-spacing-tunable multiwavelength fiber laser, analogue RF over fibre links for future radar systems, analogue RF over fibre links for future radar systems, multicore fiber beamforming network for broadband satellite communications, and concluding with a talk on wireless chemical sensor system based on electromagnetically energy-harvesting metamaterials.

Session 8 was the first of two sessions on metamaterials and had a number of world recognized leaders in the field and began with an invited talk on applications of spatially varying conductivity in plasmonics and metamaterials by Professor Ajay Nahata’s research group and was followed by invited talks on large dynamic range terahertz spectrometers based on plasmonic photomixers by Professor Mona Jarrahi’s research group, analysis of tuning methods in semiconductor frequency-selective surfaces by Professor Marco Rahm’s research group, and completing the session an invited talk on broadband terahertz generation from metamaterials and their hybrid quantum structures by Professor Jigang Wang’s research group.

Session 9 began with an invited talk on development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection by Dr. Pallavi Doradla and Professor Robert Giles’ research group, followed by a talk on one-dimensional photonic crystals for eliminating cross-talk in mid-IR photonics-based respiratory gas sensing that was presented by Lewis S. Fleming who was a Best Student Paper winner, and concluded with a talk on tissue characterization by using phase information of terahertz time domain spectroscopy.

Session 10 began with a talk on terahertz chiral structures with large optical activity, followed by talks on Improvement of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy precision by interferometrically tracked delay lines, tunable flexible metasurfaces, and concluded with a talk on demultiplexing method of terahertz-wave OFDM sub-carrier channels using integrated-optic DFT circuit.

Session 11 was the second session on metamaterials and began with an invited talk on metamaterial reconfigurable spatio-temporal modulators for terahertz sensing and imaging by Professor Willie J. Padilla and his research group, followed by a talk on ultrathin wide bandwidth metamaterial absorber using randomly distributed scatterers, an invited talk on high-performance terahertz metasurface lenses by Dr. Hou-Tong Chen, and concluded with a talk on a talk on tunable THz metamaterials based on phase-changed materials (VO2) triggered by thermal and electrical stimuli.

Session 12 began with an invited talk on resonant tunnelling diode terahertz sources for broadband wireless communications by Professor Edward Wasige and his research group, followed by talks on properties of cellulose nanocrystal films and powder in the terahertz frequency regime, gas spectroscopy system with 245 GHz transmitter and receiver in SiGe BiCMOS, a metamaterial-coupled hot-electron-bolometer working at THz frequencies, and concluded with a talk on 4x4 planar array antenna on indium phosphide substrate for 0.3-THz band application.

Session 13 began with an invited talk on terahertz monolithic solution for biosensing applications by Dr. Richard Al Hadi and others at UCLA, followed by talks on generations of linear frequency modulation continuous waves, THz wave generation through 2nd order non-linear excitonic effects in GaAs/AlAs MQWs at room temperature, and concluded with a talk on a sensitive Nb5N6 microbolometer with a composite coupling structure for THz detection.

Session 14 began with a talk waveguide development using wafer fused GaP/GaAs in THz quantum cascade lasers, followed by talks on printing sub-THz wire grid polarizers using a composite liquid metal ink, printing sub-THz wire grid polarizers using a composite liquid metal ink, and concluded with a talk on a broadband ultrathin metamaterial absorber using tilted parallel strips.

There were also a number of excellent poster presentations at this conference. The poster presentations were on precisely tunable multi-wavelength fiber laser source for phased array antenna, a linearly frequency-swept high-speed-rate multi-wavelength laser for optical coherence tomography, ultra-flattened nearly zero-dispersion THz waveguide using photonic quasi-crystal porous core fiber, slot-shaped porous core THz photonic crystal fiber with broadband high birefringence and nearly zero flat-dispersion, self-oscillating optical comb generator based on optoelectronic oscillator, an inset-fed slot ring antenna integrated with a terahertz photomixer based on a uni-traveling-carrier photodiode, and analysis of quantum well optical modulation in light-emitting transistors.

As in prior Terahertz Technology and Applications Conferences, these papers represent a cross section of much of the research work that is being pursued in the technically challenging terahertz spectral and other electromagnetic regions.

In the prior ten years of the Proceedings of this conference (Conferences 6472, 6893 7215, 7601, 7938, 8621, 8624, 8985, 9362 and 9747, respectively), we (including Dr. Kurt Linden) presented a list of recent technical articles describing significant advances in the terahertz technology. This year, for the interested reader, we also include a list that points to a rather extensive and growing database on the terahertz absorption characteristics of a large number of chemicals given on the website www.thzdb.org. That website, in turn, provides links to related terahertz technology database websites as shown in Table 1.

Table 1.

List of terahertz technology database websites as found at www.thzdb.org

THz-BRIDGE Spectral Databasehttp://www.frascati.enea.it/THz-BRIDGE/
NIST THz Spectral Databasehttp://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/thz-ir/
RIKEN THz Spectral Databasehttp://www.riken.jp/THzdatabase/
THz Links from Rice Universityhttp://www-ece.rice.edu/~daniel/groups.html
Terahertz Technology Forumhttp://www.terahertzjapan.com/lang_english/index.html
Terahertz Science & Technology Networkhttp://www.thznetwork.org/wordpress/
RIKEN Tera-Photonics Laboratoryhttp://www.riken.go.jp/lab-www/tera/TP_HP/index_en.html
Quantum Semiconductor Electronics Laboratory, University of Tokyohttp://thz.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/top-e.html
Teraherts Photonics Laboratory, Osaka Universityhttp://www.ile.osaka-u.ac.jp/research/IHP/indexeng.html
Solid State Spectroscopy Group, Kyoto Universityhttp://www.hlkarLscohys.kyoto-u.dc..1p/e_home.html
Kawase Laboratory “Tera health”, Nagoya Universityhttp://www.nuee.nogoyo-u.acjp/labs/optlab/kowase/index.html
NICT Terahertz Projecthttp://act.nicLgo.jp/thz/en/main_e.html
Laboratory of Terahertz Bioengineering, Tohoku Universityhttp://www.agraohoku.acjp/thz/jp/index_e.htm
Infrared and Raman Users Grouphttp://www.iruo.org/

In the last eight years’ introduction to SPIE Proceedings, Volumes 6472, 6893, 7215, 7601, 7938, 8621, 8624, and 8985, respectively, two tables were included, one summarizing the more common terahertz radiation sources, and the other summarizing the more common terahertz detector types. For the interest of the general reader we again include these tables without updates other than to note that recent advancements in vacuum electronics BWOs coupled with solid state multipliers have now produced usable power above 2 THz and that devices such as quantum cascade lasers continue to make improvements that encroach upon established high power sources such as carbon dioxide lasers. Due to such advancements, any values listed in Tables 2 and 3 are likely to be bested by new records in a very short time period; however the sources and detectors listed in Tables 2 and 3 still comprise the majority of those used in the THz regime. Readers of this volume may send additions and enhancements to these tables so that future volumes can continue to provide readers with relevant information on the availability of terahertz sources and detectors. Such suggestions can be sent to sadwick@innosystech.com.

Table 2.

Summary of common terahertz sources

THz source typeDetailsCharacteristics
Synchrotron* Coherent synchrotron produces very highE-beam, very broadband source, limited instrument
photon flux, including THz regionavailability, very large size, 20 W pulsed
Free electron laser* Benchtop design at Univ. Essex, UKTunable over entire THz region, under development
Elec beam moves over alternate H-field regions0.1 - 4.8 THz, 0.5 - 5 kW, 1 - 20 us pulses at 1 Hz
Smith-Purcell emitters* E-beam travels over metal grating surface,Requires vacuum, has low efficiency
  
Backward-wave oscillators* Vacuum tube, requires homog H-field~10 kGTunable output possible. Under development and
“Carcinotron”, room temperature, to 1.2 Thzcommercially available, 10 mW power level, <1 THz
Mercury lamp* Water cooled housing, low press. 1E-3 TorrSciencetech SPS-200,300, low power density
75-150 W lamp, broad emissionLow-cost, used in THz spectroscopy
Optically pumped gas cell laser* Grating-tuned CO2 laser and far-IR gas> 100 mW, 0.3-10 THz, discrete lines, CW/pulsed
cell such as methane. Most mature laser.Commercially avail - Coherent ($400K - $1M)
Opt pump GaAs, p-InAs, Si, ZnTe, InGaAs (fiber laser pump), Ge photoconducting (PC) switch* Mode locked Nd:YAG or Ti:sapphire laserImaging apparatus produced, 0.1 to 3 THz
creates short across biased spiral antenna gapCommercially available, CW uW range, $50K-500K
* Also As-doped Si, CO2 laser pump6 THz stim emission from As, Liq He temp.
  
Laser-induced air plasma* Ti-saph laser induces air plasmaRemote THz generatiion possible, very low power
 Possibility of power increase in multiple plasmas
Photomixing of near-IR lasers* Mixing tunable Ti-sapphire laser and diodeTens of nW, tunable. Requires antenna pattern
laser in LT-grown GaAs photomixer.Not commercial. GaP gave 480 mW @ 1.3 THz
 * GaSe crystal, Nd:YAG/OPO difference freqTunable 58-3540um (5-0.1THz),209 W pulse 1.5THz
 * Single 835 nm diode laser, external cavity2-freq mix& 4-wave mixing, RT, sub-nW,0.3-4.2THz
 * Diff-freq generation with 2 monolith QCLs7.6 u & 8.7 u -> 5 THz, 60 nW puled output
Electrically pumped Ge in H-field* Electric field injects electrons, magneticRequires electric and magnetic fields Output up to
field splits hole levels for low-E transitionshundres of mW, cryogenic cooling, 1.5 ~ 4 THz
Electrically pumped Si:B or As* Transitions between impurity levels31 uW output at 8.1 THz, slightly polarized
100 x 200 um rectangle mesas, biasedCryogenic cooling needed
Electrically pulsed InGaAs RTD* Harmonically generated by electrical pulses0.6 uW, 1.02 THz harmonic from InGaAs/AlAs RTD
RTD integrated into slot antennapulsed at 300 Hz
Direct multiplied mm waves* Multiplied to low-THz regionLow power (uW level), available (VA Diodes)
up-multiplied from mm-waveCoherent, heterodyne local oscillators in astronomy
Parametric generators* Q-switched Nd:YAG pumps MgO:LiNbO3200 W pulsed power, room temp., 0.1-5 THz tunable
non-linear crystal, Phase matched GaAs, GaPsome commercially available ~ $30K
Quantum cascade (QC) laser* First announced in 2002, semiconductor,Operated at mW power, and up to 164K pulsed
AlGaAs/GaAs-based, MBE grown, 1.6 to 4 THzTHz not commercially available, require cryo-cooling
Josephson junction cascadesResearch stage0.4-0.85 THz, microwatts
  
Transistor* InGaAs channel PHEMT with 35 nm gate1.2 THz, development at Northrop Grumman
* InGaAs with 12.5 nm gate, 0.845 THzUniv. Ill (Dec 2006)
Grating-bicoupled plasmon-FET* GaAs based double interdigitated gratingwith 1.5um laser illum., Tohoku/Hokkaido Univ.
  

Table 3.

Summary of common terahertz radiation detectors

THz detector typeDetailsCharacteristics
Si bolometer* Most sensitive (10 pW Hz1/2) THz detectorResponsivity 2E9V/W,NEP=1E-17 WHz1/2,100 mK
at liquid He temp., slow response timeRequires liquid He dewar, commercially avail.
Superconducting hot elec bolom* Highest sensitivityRequires cooling to 0.3 K, NEP=1E-17 WHz1/2
Fast (1 us) response timeCommercially available, expensive, bulky
Pyroelectric detectors* Slow response t, 220 nW sensitiv at 24 HzRoom temp operation, commercially available,
Requires pulsed signals or mechanical chopperLow cost, imagers available ~ $10K
Schottky diodes* ~ 1 THz cutoff frequencyCommercially available ((VA Diodes) with corner ref.
Fast response, but low THz sensitivityRoom temp operation, good for mixers
PC dipole antennas* signal gen across biased spiral antenna gapAnalogous to optically pumped THz PC switch but
Short pulsed detection onlyin detection mode. Commercially available
Antenna coupled inter-subband* 4-terminal phototransistor, 1.6 THzUnder development UCSB
  
III-V HEMT & Si FET to 300K* HEMT with 250 nm gate20 K, 50 mV/W at 420 GHz, still in development
plasma wave-based detectionUniv research, Si NEP to 1E-10 W/Hz1/2 at 300 K
Quantum dot photon detector* Demo-photon counting terahertz microscopyUnder development, 1E-19 W = 100 photons/sec,
imaging, requires 0.3 K temp, research onlyTokyo Univ.

We would also to acknowledge Miss Sahar Mirzaei, a graduate student pursuing her Ph.D. degree at University of Southampton in England who was unfortunately not able to attend the conference due to a temporary ban that was later lifted by the U.S. Courts. Her paper is among those published herein.

Finally, we would like to thank the Conference Program Committee:

René Beigang, Jianji Dong, Frank Ellrich, Robert H. Giles, R. Jennifer Hwu, J. Anthony Murphy, Créidhe O’Sullivan, Kyung Hyun Park, Alessia Portieri, Jinghua Teng, Michael Weibel, and Jiangfeng Zhou.

We would also like to thank the SPIE Program and Proceedings staff who worked on this conference and proceedings.

Laurence P. Sadwick

Tianxin Yang

© (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
} "Front Matter: Volume 10103", Proc. SPIE 10103, Terahertz, RF, Millimeter, and Submillimeter-Wave Technology and Applications X, 1010301 (5 May 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2276637; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2276637
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