16 February 2017 Spectroscopy of erbium-doped potassium double tungstate waveguides
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Abstract
We report the spectroscopy of crystalline waveguide amplifiers operating in the telecom C-band. Thin films of erbiumdoped gadolinium lutetium potassium double tungstate, KGdxLuyEr1-x-y (WO4)2, are grown by liquid- phase epitaxy onto undoped potassium yttrium double tungstate (KYW) substrates and micro-structured by Ar+- beam etching. Channel waveguides with erbium concentrations between 0.45–6.35 × 1020 cm-3 are characterized. The transition cross-sections of interest are estimated. The effect of energy-transfer up-conversion (ETU) is experimentally investigated. Microscopic and macroscopic ETU parameters are extracted from a simultaneous analysis of 20 decay curves of luminescence on the transition 4I13/24I13/2. The correlation between ETU and the doping concentration is studied. Pump excited-state absorption (ESA) on the transition 4I11/24F7/2 is investigated via a direct ESA measurement using a double-modulation pump-probe technique. The effect of ESA is studied for different pump wavelengths. The pump wavelength of 984.5 nm is found to be favorable for the complete range of erbium concentrations.
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Sergio A. Vázquez-Córdova, Shanmugam Aravazhi, Christos Grivas, Alexander M. Heuer, Christian Kränkel, Yean-Sheng Yong, Sonia M. García-Blanco, Jennifer L. Herek, Markus Pollnau, "Spectroscopy of erbium-doped potassium double tungstate waveguides", Proc. SPIE 10106, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXI, 1010604 (16 February 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2252488; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252488
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