20 February 2017 Graphene planar lightwave circuit sensors for chemical detection
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Abstract
Sensing devices based on Graphene Field Effect Transistors (G-FET) have been demonstrated by several groups to show excellent sensitivity for a variety of chemical agents. These devices are based on measuring changes in the electrical conductivity of graphene when exposed to various chemicals. However, because of its unique band structure, graphene also exhibits changes in its optical response upon chemical exposure. The conical intersection of the valence and conduction bands results in a low density of states near the Dirac point. At this point, chemical doping resulting from molecular binding to graphene can result in dramatic changes in graphene’s optical absorption. Here we will discuss our recent work in developing a graphene planar lightwave circuit (PLC) sensor which exploits these optical and electronic properties of graphene to demonstrate chemical sensitivity. The devices are based on a strong evanescent coupling of graphene via electrically gated silicon nanowire waveguides. A strong response in the form of a reversible optical attenuation change of 6 dB is shown when these devices interact with toxic industrial chemicals such as iodine and ammonia. The optical transition can also be tuned to the optical c-band (1530-1565 nm) which enables these devices to operate at telecom wavelengths.
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Ashok Maliakal, Saima Husaini, Leslie Reith, Paul Bollond, Steve Cabot, Paul Sheehan, Sandra Hangartar, Scott Walton, Cy Tamanaha, "Graphene planar lightwave circuit sensors for chemical detection", Proc. SPIE 10107, Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XIX, 101070T (20 February 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2252644; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252644
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